|TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH VERBALS AND VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS/COMPLEXES
Common English and Ukrainian non-finite forms of the verb, i.e., the infinitive and both participles, are characterized by identical functions in the sentence. Some of their lexico-grammatical meanings, however, are considerably broader in English than in Ukrainian and include the combined tense and aspect or tense, aspect and voice forms of the infinitive as well as of the present participle derived respectively from the intransitive and from transitive verbs (cf. to live - to be living, to have lived; but: to do - to be done, to be doing; doing - being done, having been done, etc.)
To render faithfully some of these lexico-grammatical meanings (semes) of English verbal paradigms into Ukrainian is not always possible. An exception make the simple paradigms, which usually have semantic and structural equivalents in both languages. For
to ask —to be asked Запитувати - бути
working (Participle I) - працюючий, працюючи; having worked (Perfect Participle) - попрацювавши, пропрацювавши.
Translation of verbals depends not only on their structural, i.e., paradigmatic forms but also on their nature. Thus, a special approach is needed to render in Ukrainian the complexity of meanings contained by some paradigms of the English gerund (or to render the meanings of the Ukrainian diyepryslivnyk in English).
Consequently, the ways of rendering the meanings of verbals are predetermined by some factors which include a) the structural form of the verbal and b) the function of the verbal in the sentence,
where it may be either a single part of the sentence or a component of an extended part of the sentence.
Despite the differences in their morphological nature and lexical meaning, some verbals may perform the same functions in English sentences and in their corresponding Ukrainian syntaxemes. Hence, it is expedient to contrast the functions and meanings of English and Ukrainian verbals in the corresponding sentences of these two languages.
WAYS OF RENDERING THE LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ENGLISH INFINITIVE
Translation of the English infinitive is greatly predetermined by its form and sometimes by its function in the sentence. The infinitive functioning as a single part of the sentence, i.e., not being a component of a secondary predication complex, has usually corresponding equivalents in Ukrainian. The latter are a single infinitive or infinitival phrase when the infinitive functions as 1. The subject:
Було так приємно знову дістатися до своєї кімнати.
«Вивезти Айріні за місто... - в цьому було все!»
Не було жодної потреби описувати родину Келсів.
It was pretty nice to get back to my room. /Salinger/
To get Irene out of London ... that was the thing. /Galsworthy/
There was no need to desribe
the Kelseys. (Christie)
«Щоб чоловікові вдарити / бити жінку!»
2. The simple nominal predicate: «A gentleman to strike a lady!» (B.Shaw)
This function of the infinitive is often observed in Ukrainian
literary speech style, eg: Hi. He бути панам на Вкраїні!
Вже скоро бути бабиному літу. (Дмитерко)
3. Part of a compound predicate /or predicative:
No, you couldn't have called Hi, її не можна було назвати
her beautiful. (Mansfield) гарною.
... the company began to ...товариство заходилося/
mark the time. (LDurrel) розпочало відраховувати час.
Her next step was to speak її наступним кроком було
to Llewellyn. (Cronin) ^ поговорити з Ллевеллином.
«You will have to wait until you «Вам доведеться почекати.
hear from me again.» (Dreiser) доки я знову сповіщу про себе».
4. The Object (simple, extended or expanded):
~i- --- - - ,
Julia found it very pleasant to sit then in the shade looking at the river. (Maugham)
She taught him tosjtata table and not put his elbows on it. (Ibid.)
Джулїі дуже подобалось тоді сидіти в затінку і дивитися на річку/воду.
Вона вчила його сидіти за столом і не класти на нього руки.
The infinitive has also its equivalents in Ukrainian when it is
used as a complement to an adjective or adjectivized past participle:
«I'm very glad to have seen «я дуже радий, що зуст-
you again...» (Cronin) рівся з вами знову/що побачив
Very often the English infinitival object may have in Ukrainian an equivalent infinitival phrase introduced by the conjunction:
/ was too much disturbed to Я був аж надто стурбова-
go tQ bed. (C.P.Snow) ний, щоб іти спати.
5. An attribute (which is less often used in Ukrainian) as in the sentence below:
«Can I give you anything to «Дати вам щось поїсти чи.
eat or to drink?» (Lawrence) попити?»
Attributive infinitives can also be conveyed with the help of attributive subordinate clauses:
We made a list of things to be Ми склали список речей,
taken ... (Jerome) щоб узяти з собою/які візьме
мо з собою.
This same attributive syntaxeme may also be translated as які/що треба було взяти з собою.
Some English attributive syntaxemes can be conveyed in Ukrainian with the help of an attributive subordinate clause:
«... he wasn't a sort of boy to «... він був не з тих хлопців,
яких можна збити з_ пан-телику.
bje moved from 3. purpose ... (Ibid.)
Some English attributive infinitives may have apart from subordinate clauses or infinitival phrases also prepositional nouns for their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian:
... there were instructions to ... були дані інструкції до /
be carried out. (Cronin) для виконання (які треба було
Note. This function of the infinitive is also observed in Ukrainian: мати бажання поїсти/щось випити. Він мав надію ще зустрітися.
6. An adverbial modifier (usually of purpose, result or consequence) may be conveyed in Ukrainian with the help of an infinitival щоб-phrase, a prepositional noun or a noun word-group:
She wanted time to, think it їй треба було часу для
over. (Galsworthy) обдумування/щоб обміркува
It was too dark to_ distinguish Було занадто темно, щоб
anything. (Lawrence) розрізняти що-небудь.
These were the main Ukrainian semantic equivalents for single English infinitives performing different functions in the sentence.
Exercise I. Prior to translating the English sentences be-low point out the function of the underlined infinitive and suggest a Ukrainian semantic equivalent for it.
1. Then she remembered about his own children; how most of them had been bom but to sicken and die before they grew up. (Maugham)
2. «I hope you'll have enough to eat», said. Julia. (Ibid.) 3. You did it deliberately to separate us. (Ibid.) 4. In the creek there are birds to watch, and fish to catch- and streams to explore. (Maurier). 5. It was necessary to do something. (D.Lessing). 6. I have not had time to examine that room yet. (C.Doyle) 7. It must be a big thing to swing the telescope like that. (H. Wells) 8. Sometimes you retreat in order to advance. (Galsworthy) 9.1 was too young to think such things at the time. (Ibid.). 10. His eyes were sharp enough to look after his own interest. (Ibid.) 11. George said we had better get the canvas up first. (Jerome K.Jerome) 12. He forgot to wind the watch when he
went to bed. (Ibid.). 13. We intended to camp in one of the inlets to be found round that tiny shore, (ibid.) 14. «I think», he said, «that to prolong this discussion is to waste time.» (Galsworthy) 15. He felt that it was something to be connected with such a place, and he made her feel that way. (Dreiser) 16. It is useless to discuss this problem. (Cusack) 17. Soames put on his coat as not to be cold. (Galsworthy) 18. Katie surmised that something had gone wrong in school to upset Francie. (Mowat) 19.1 crept back to my hut, to cast myself on my grass bed and sink into a dull, miserable, desponding stupor. (Ibid.) 20. Our job will be to investigate some of its properties. (M.Wilson) 21. I'm glad to meet you. (Dreiser) 22. She refused to answer him. (Lawrence) 23. Annie was now studying to be a teacher. (Lawrence) 24. It was sufficient to sit there to breathe, to look at the river and trees, simply to exist. (Braine) 25.1 meant to have a talk to him. (Wells) 26. He was ...too good a workman to be sacked and too outspoken about his Labour convictions to be promoted. (Braine) 27.1 told the driver the address to drive to. (Hemingway) 28. It was the automatic instinct to live. (London) 29. Anything was good enough so long as it paid - say, five dollars a week, to begin with. (Dreiser)
30. He was a fool to attempt to make a pretence that way. (London)
31. He was satisfied to turn his face away entirely, and any call to look back was irksome. (Dreiser).
WAYS OF TRANSLATING INFINITIVAL COMPLEXES
There are three types of infinitival complexes in present-day English (which are often referred to as secondary predication constructions): 1) the for-to-infinitival complex; 2) the objective with the infinitive and 3) the subjective with the infinitive complexes.
Each type of these predicative constructions has some explicit and implicit grammatical characteristics of its own. Since translation of these complexes is often predetermined by their nature and structure, it would be expedient to dwell upon each of them separately.
A. Ways of Translating the For-to-lnfinitive Constructions These secondary predication constructions are used in their active and passive forms which does not influence their functioning as various complex parts of the sentence. Depending on its function in the sentence and on the voice form (active or passive) of the infinitive, this secondary predication word-group may have different equivalents in Ukrainian. The most often occurring are the infinitive, an
infinitival phrase introduced by the conjunction щоб, a finite form of the verb or a subordinate clause. The realization of a definite meaning may be predetermined by the function of the infinitival for-phrase which may be as follows:
1. The complex subject having for its equivalent in Ukrainian a simple subject expressed by the infinitive or an extended subject expressed by the subordinate clause:
«For me to see you is the hap- «Побачити тебе - для
piest minute in my life... (P. мене найщасливіша мить у
Abrahams) житті/є для мене найщасли-
вішою хвилиною ...
«It would be better for us to «Було б краще для нас
leave him.» (Wilde) залишити його/щоб ми зали
2. A complex predicative having for its Ukrainian equivalent either an infinitive functioning as the simple nominal predicate, or a finite form of the verb, i.e., a simple verbal predicate:
«If is not for you to make Ue не тобі ставити умови/
terms.» (Wilde) He ти ставиш умови.
«The simplest thing,» said «Найпростіший вихід для
Fleur, «is for him to resign at нього ... — негайно відмови-
once.» (Galsworthy) тись від членства.»
3. A complex object corresponding to a simple or extended object in Ukrainian:
We are waiting for the bovs Ми чекаємо повернення/на
back from Hanoi. (Greene) повернення наших хлопиів з
The condensed form of this infinitival complex may also have an object clause for its equivalent in Ukrainian: ми чекаємо, доки наші хлопці повернуться з Ганоя.
4. An attribute to a nominal part of speech: She had only to express а Варто було їй тільки wish for him to fulfil. (Mauaham} виголосити якесь (своє)
бажання, він негайно ж виконував його.
There was no room for us to He було місця, де сісти/де.
sit down... (Galsworthy) можна було сісти.
5. An adverbial modifier of equivalents a subordinate clause / left something under your door for you to read it. (Carter)
Her home was too far west for anyone to come to him. (Cusack)
purpose or result having for their or an infinitive in Ukrainian:
Я дещо залишив тобі під дверима, щоб ти почитав/ тобі почитати.
її'домівка була далеко західніше, тож ніхто не міг навідатись до нього.
Sometimes, however, an equivalent of the for-phrase in Ukrainian may be only a subordinate (or coordinate) clause:
He paused for me to show my Він помовчав, аби я ще раз
ignorance again... (Greene) показав своє неуцтво ...
Exercise II. Identify the function of the infinitival for-phrase and translate each sentence below into Ukrainian.
1. For me to ask would be treason; and for me to be told would be treason. (M.Wilson) 2. For you to come here is impossible. 3. «For me to discover England to him,» she thought, «for him to discover the East to me.» (Galsworthy) 4. It was impossible for me now to persuade myself that this urgent desire of his to dispense hospitality was disinterested. 5.... It was out of the question for him to absnnt himself for any length of time. 6. It would have been easy for him to get out of it. 7. It seemed a good opportunity for Julia to get away. (Maugham) 8. It would be better for us to leave him. (Wilde) 9. It was not unknown for small boys to enter a monastery. (Ken Follett) 10. It was so easy for a young man of his looks and character to be led astray by evil woman. (Dreiser) 11. There was need for him to be economical. 12. It seems so babyish for me to be young to night school. (London) 13. It is for me to thank you. 14. «The simplest thing,» said Fleur, «is for him to resign at once». (Galsworthy). 15. «That is for me to decide, is it not?» (C.Doyle) 16. He wants me to do something pleasant - for him to feel better.» (Maugham) 17. All he wanted desperately now ... was for their child to live. (A. Hailey) 18. «What is there for me to do, except one thing?» (J. Conrad) 19. Rosemary looked for a place to sit. (Fitzgerald) 20. David had decided to let him wait for his seventeenth birthday to come. 21. We think it natural for parents to want their children to conform to a pattern they understand. 22. David prayed nightly for her and Blaise to come back. (I.Murdoch) 23. I'll try and arrange for you to see him at Mount Street. (Galsworthy) 24. He sat there in the little hot office
waiting for one of us to speak. (Greene) 25. She also asked for more women to be appointed news-readers. (M. Guardian) 26. I sometimes think it is a shame for people to spend so much money this way. (Dreiser) 27.1 bought something for you to read. 28. «It's not a bad thing for you to judge others by yourself». (Maugham) 29. There was milk in the ice-chest for her to drink.(Cusack) 30. And there was a child's shirt in the living-room waiting for a button to be sewn on. (Greene) 31. Arrangements are being made for the girl to be taken back to her own country. (M. Guardian) 32. Dr. Saunders stopped for us to join him. (Maugham) 33. But five minutes was enough for them to understand one another. (Cronin)
WAYS OF TRANSLATING THE OBJECTIVE WITH
THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS/PREDICATIVE
Unlike the polyfunctional for-to-infinitive constructions, the objective with the infinitive complexes can have mostly one function in the sentence - that of the complex object. Despite this the semantic equivalents of this construction in Ukrainian are often different. The choice of the Ukrainian semantic equivalent is predetermined by some factors, the main of which are as follows: a) the lexical meaning of the finite verb after which the objective with the infinitive construction is used; b) the paradigmatic form of the infinitive (its categorial meaning); c) the lexical meaning of the objective infinitive. As a result, different semantic and structural equivalents may be used in Ukrainian as substitutes for this predicative complex. The choice of the appropriate language unit/sense u(1it may often rest with the translator only or it may be predetermined by the structural peculiarity of the sentence under translation. The most common ways of translating the objective with the infinitive constructions are the following: 1. By means of a subordinate clause:
Ви хочете, щоб___ (діапозитиви) забрав?
Усі спостерігали, як він іде садком/переходить садок.
«Do you want me to take these (slides) away?» (Hailey)
Depending on the predicate verb, the objective with the infiniive construction may be rendered into Ukrainian with the help of an infinitive or a subordinate clause:
Everyone watched him walk across the garden. (D. Lessing)
Він наказав кучерові /xs щоб він їхав далі.
He ordered the cabman to drive on. (London)
2. By means of an objective infinitival word-group forming part of the compound modal verbal predicate (like in English):
У дитинстві я бажав стати художником, але батько змусив мене піти в бізнес.
Повільно, збираючись з силами, він одягнувся і змусив себе йти.
- - - - - • _ / rather wanted to be a painter when I was a boy, but my father made me go into business. (Maugham)
Slowly, economically, he got dressed and forced himself to walk. (Lawrence)
3. By means of a noun derived from the objective infinitive (an alternative way of translation) or an object clause.
He heard the blackbird sing. Він чув спів дрозда.
Не had expected him to be Він очікував від нього біль-more sympathetic. (Maugham) ше співчуття.
The objective with the infinitive construction in the above-given sentence may naturally be translated with the help of the subordinate clause: Він очікував, що той виявить більше співчуття/що той буде співчутливішим.
4. By means of a phrasal/simple verbal predicate: The champagne and the alti- Від шампанського й висоти tude made him sleep. (Hailey) його хилило до сну/йому хотілося спати.
Не never made me laugh. Він ніколи не міг мене
(Maugham) розсмішити/викликати в мене
The objective with the infinitive construction in the last sentence may also be understood and translated with the help of a single finite form of the verb: Він ніколи мене не тішив.
In some sentences introduced by the anticipatory ft the objective with the infinitive construction may perform a quite unusual for it function of the complex subject corresponding to the Ukrainian extended infinitival subject:
«It's heavenly to hear you say «Чути ие од вас - справж-that, my sweet.» (Maugham) нісіньке блаженство.»
Translation of the objective with the infinitive constructions, therefore, may be predetermined npt only by the nature and meaning of the finite verb/predicate, which may have various implicit dependent grammatical meanings (those of physical or mental perception, verbs of saying, etc.), but also by its syntactic function, by the translator's choice of the equivalent and by the stylistic aim pursued in the sentence.
Exercise III. Prior to translating the English sentences below offer appropriate Ukrainian semantic (and structural) equivalents for each objective with the infinitive construction.
1.1 want you to hear me out. 2.1 saw you drive up and I ran down, I'm afraid, on the third floor. 3. She had never seen him smoke a pipe before. 4. She heard him slam the front door and saw him come out. 5. Now she heard Guy clatter down the steps to the bath-house. 6. He heard Big Ben chime «Three» above the traffic. (Galsworthy) 7. Neilson watched him make his way across and when he had disappeared among the coconuts, he looked still. 8. She wanted him to look back on this as one of the great moments of his life. 9. She felt that he wanted her to be a child of nature. 10. «Don't you remember, before I married Gelbert you advised me to marry a man of my own age.» 11. She had expected him to be more sympathetic. 12. «I should hate him to be an author if that's what you mean.» 13. She must look at the people if she wants 1hem to look at her. 14. She saw Charles's smile freeze on his face. 15. ... he could not see Julia's face when she heard him say this. 16. Julia didn't know why... her little presents made her inclined to laugh. (Maugham) 17. «Oh! If I could only see him laugh once more. Oh! If I could only see him weep». (M.Twain) 18. She caused a telegram to be sent to him. (Galsworthy) 19. «... she must agree her baby to be surrendered for adoption immediately after birth.» 20. O'Donnell wanted his baby to live. 21 If you wanted him to take an assistant, you told him to do so and ussually that was that. 22. «Even at that,» O'Donnell reflected, «he had considered the chairman to be erring toward optimism.» 23. «It was a loud, firm protest, but even as he made it he had known it to be a lie » 24. «Mike had spoken them (words) on impulse, but suddenly, deeply, he knew them to be true.» (Hailey) 25. It was so like his family, so like them to carry their business principles into their private relations. (Galsworthy) 26. «I want order! I want things to get started!» (R.Goldberg) 27. He had the dray-man bring in the soap. (Dreiser) 28. «I cannot bear you to speak of that.» (Jerome K.Jerome)
Exercise IV. Translate the sentences into English. Be sure to use the corresponding form of the infinitive in each of them.
I. Я не знав, що вона також розмовляє італійською мовою. 2. Він не сподівався, що ви запросите і мене. 3. Всі раді, що перша лекція в нас була з історії України. 4. Ми були першими, хто зустрічав канадських студентів у нашому університеті. 5. Вона пишалася тим, що мала змогу перекладати промову цього вченого з Оксфордського університету. 6. Микола задоволений, що зустрічався зі своїми однокласниками. 7. Ніхто не чекав, що до них завітають перед сесією делегати наукової конференції. 8. Ми хочемо, щоб першим іспитом у зимову сесію поставили теоретичну граматику. 9. Студенти не сподівалися, що вони всі так добре напишуть контрольну роботу. 10. Всі задоволені, що їздили на екскурсію до колишньої козацької столиці Батурина.
II. У тому тексті надто багато неологізмів і жаргонізмів, щоб перекласти його без словника. 12. Вона не пригадує, щоб тоді в Харкові придбала цей дорогий словник. 13. Нікому не було місця, де сісти. 14. Нам незручно пригадуватиб що ми тоді стільки турбували вас із перекладом цієї торговельної угоди. 15. Погода була несприятлива, щоб їхати в Карпати на спортивні змагання. 16. Вони були дуже задоволені, що відвідали музей мадам Тюссо в Лондоні. 17. Хто б міг подумати, що з цього тендітного першокурсника виросте такий видатний спортсмен. 18. Ми раді повідомити вам, що його наукова робота з перекладу відзначена першою премією на конкурсі. 19. Студентам подобається, коли їм дають більше самостійно перекладати. 20. Вони задоволені, що їхні наукові праці прийняті на конкурс. 21. Студентка не погодилася, щоб її одну з групи посилали до Великої Британії. 22. Ніхто не очікував, що їх пошлють тлумачами на виставку шведських споживчих товарів у Києві. 23. Студент не боявся, що його усний переклад слухатиме вся група. 24. Він хотів попросити час, щоб виконати цей важкий переклад. 25. Ми раді, що нас під час зимових канікул посилали на спортивні змагання до Львова. 26. Усі сподівались тоді, що нашому інститутові буде присвоєне почесне ім'я найбільшого поліглота України академіка Агатанґела Кримського. 27. Не всі знають, що цей учений володів 68 мовами народів Европи й Азії. 28. Щоб правильно й адекватно перекласти текст, його треба перш належно проаналізувати. 29. Студент не підозрював, що той уривок міг мати стільки незнайомих йому слів-технічних термінів. ЗО. Усі погодилися, що уривок міг бути перекладений за коротший час.
WAYS OF RENDERING THE MEANING OF THE
SUBJECTIVE WITH THE INFINITIVE
This predicative infinitival construction or complex, as it is often referred to in grammars, consists of the secondary subject, usually noun or pronoun, and secondary predicate expressed by the infinitive. The latter is mostly separated from the nominal part of the complex subject by the primary predicate: Mr. Chritchlow had never been known to be glad to see anybody. (Bennett) or: You are to live here for the next six months. (B.Shaw)
The secondary subject may often be expressed by the anticipatory pronoun it lt,was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessar-ily at sea. (Hemingway).
Translation of the infinitival complexes into Ukrainian depends on or is predetermined by some factors, the main of which are the following:
1) the lexical meaning of the verb or rather the semantic group to which the verb (after which the syntactic construction is used) belongs;
2) the voice form (active or passive) of the subjective (nominative) infinitive;
3) the structure of the parts of the sentence and that of the sentence itself, which may be simple or composite;
4) the translator's choice of the means and language units conveying the meaning of the subjective with the infinitive constructions.
Thus, when used with the verbs expressing permission, request, intention, order, compulsion (to allow, to permit, to order, to command, to force, to make, to request, to intend, etc.), the subjective with the infinitive construction may be rendered in Ukrainian in the following ways:
a) with the help of an indefinite personal sentence;
b) with the help of an impersonal sentence having the passive verbal predicate in -но, -то;
c) with the help of an object subordinate clause, for example:
A. The inmates were ordered not to try to leave their wards. (USA Today)
1) В 'язням наказали не робити спроб залишати камери:
2) В 'язням було наказано/наказали не робити спроб...
3) В'язням наказали, щоб вони не робили спроб залишати камери.
В. The subjective with the infinitive construction used with the verbs of physical perception (to feel, to hear, to see, to taste, etc.) can be translated:
a) with the help of the one-member introductory indefinite personal sentences followed by an object subordinate clause as in the following sentence:
He was seen the first to come. Бачили, що він прийшов
(D. Carter) першим.
A certain mar? w&s seen tQ Бачили, що якийсь чоловік,
reel into Mr.Twain's hotel last заточуючись, ввалився вчора
night. (M. Twain) ввечері в готельний номер
Alongside the introductory definite personal sentence, sometimes the impersonal introductory sentence may be used in Ukrainian to render the meaning of the nominative with the infinitive construction. Thus the sentence below can be translated in two ways:
The garden gate was heard to bang. (Lawrence)
1) Чули/було чути, як 2) Почулося, як у садку
хляпнула хвіртка в садок. хляпнула хвіртка.
Similarity in the sentence below where the Ukrainian reflexive verb performs the functions of the introductory/subject clause:
It was felt to be hopeless. Відчувалося. що це
(Galsworthy) безнадійно./Відчувалося. що з
цього нічого не буде.
This sentence may have in Ukrainian one more quite unexpected condensed version of a two-member simple sentence: 1) Відчувалася безнадія. 2) Відчувалася якась безвихідь.
С. Similar ways of translation are employed when the subjective with the infinitive complex/constrtuction is used with the verbs of mental perception (to believe, to deny, to expect, to know, to suppose, etc.):
He is supposed to be work- Вважають (вважається), що ing in the sanatorium. (Cusack) він нібито працює в санаторії.
Irene was known to take very sudden decisions. (Galsworthy)
Знали, що Айріні приймає зовсім несподівані рішення (здатна на несподівані рішення).
Depending on the context, the translator may suggest some other structural (and, naturally, semantic) versions for the last sentence. As for example:
Айріні знали як людину, що здатна на зовсім несподівані (непередбачені) рішення. Знали, що Айріні може приймати зовсім непередбачені рішення.
D. When used after the verbs of saying and reporting (to say, to report, to tell, etc.), the nominative with the infinitive complex is translated with the help of the introductory indefinite-personal sentence followed by an object subordinate clause. The choice of the form of this introductory clause is predetermined by the verb with which the subjective with the infinitive construction is used. Thus, the verb say, for example, can not have а ^сяЛсь equivalent in Ukrainian, whereas the verb report can have both the -ся form as well as the third person plural form introduced by the conjunction як:
Paper is said to have been invented in China. (Bennett)
Кажуть, що папір винайдений/винайдено в Китаї.
But: US Secretary of State is reported to have arrived in Geneva. (The Guardian)
1) Повідомляють, що державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.
2) Як повідомляють, державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.
3) Повідомляється, що державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.
Apart from the verbs of saying and reporting the verbs to expect, to understand, and to see are used in oral and written mass media in the same functions. Their meaning may sometimes differ from their commonly known vocabulary meanings. For example:
Sax sates this year are expected to blow past last year's 67000. (USA Today)
But: The rally was seen to be much smaller than had been expected. (The Guardian)
Очікується, що продаж платівок саксофонної музики цього року перевищить торішню на 67,000 (штук)
Виявилося (як виявилося), мітинґ зібрав менше людей, ніж очікувалося.
The sentence can also be translated with the help of the impersonal -ся verbal clause introduced by the conjunction як: Як переконалися, мітинґ зібрав менше людей, ніж спершу очікувалось.
The verb understand with which the subjective with the infinitive construction is used, has a peculiar meaning - згідно наявних відомостей:
The trial is understood to be Згідно наявних відомостей. held next week. (The Guardian) суд______відбудеться
Еліс, здавалося, не чула про мене./Здавалося. Еліс не чула про мене.
Вважали/здається, вона брала участь у першому польоті до Альфи 73.
Е. When used with the verbs to appear, to chance, to happen, to prove, to seem, or with the mood phrases to be sure, to be certain, to be likely/unlikely the subjective with the infinitive constructions may have different interpretations in Ukrainian. Thus, the verbs seem, believe, appear, etc, which function as simple verbal predicates in English are converted into parenthetic words or introductory сь-1-ся impersonal/definite personal sentences (Вважається/ вважають, здається):
«Л//се didn't seem tc heard of me.» (Braine)
She was believed to hi taken part in the first flight to Alpha 73 (J.Christoper)
Other contextual semantic variants of sentences with the predicate verbs to appear, to believe, to seem, etc. followed by the secondary subject expressed by the subjective infinitive may be the adverb очевидно or the modal particle ніби/нібито:
He seemed to be thinking of Він, здавалося, думав про
something else. (Dreiser) щось зовсім Інше.
The sentence can also have some other equivalent in Ukrainian: Його думки, очевидно, були зайняті чимось іншим/Він ніби думав щось (про щось) зовсім інше.
Note. The structure of some English sentences containing the subjective with the infinitive constructions may undergo certain slight changes in Ukrainian translation:
Mrs. Cowperwood, in spite of Місіс Каупервуд,
the differences in their years, ap~ незважаючи на різницю в
peared to be a fit mate for him at роках, виявилась для нього під
this time. (Dreiser) цю пору гідною партнеркою.
Sentences with the subjective with the infinitive constructions
may have predicates expressing the modal meanings of certainty, uncertainty, probability, etc. (to be sure, to seem, to be certain, to be likely/unlikely, etc). Such sentences are not transformed in Ukrainian translation, i.e., they maintain their simple structure, with the predicates turning into modal words/particles or adverbs such as можливо, певне/напевне, навряд/чи/неможливо, обов'язково:
The fire is certain to produce Пожежа обов'язково panic in the morning. (Dreiser) зчинить паніку взавтра
But he is sure to marry her. (T.Hardy)
Alice did not seem to have heard me. (Braine)
Але він обов'язково (певно-таки) одружиться з нею.
Аліс, очевидно/здавалося. не почула мене.
Ukrainian semantic equivalents for the modal words likely/unlikelyfollowed by the subjective infinitive may also be clauses of modal meaning:
є можливість (існує ймовірність), не виключена можливість:
Існує можливість, що вона споживатиме в Мексиці забруднені продукти чи питиме забруднену воду.
«... навряд чи можна в одній людині поєднати все, що хочеш.»
She was likely to consume contaminated food or water in Mexico. (Hailey)
«... we're unlikely to get everything we want in one man.» (Snow)
The last English sentence and sentences like that having nominal predicates with implicit modal meanings of supposition, doubt, uncertainty, etc. followed by the subjective infinitive may have other lexico-semantic equivalents in Ukrainian to express their meaning. Among these are the modal phrases as цілком імовірно/цілком можливо, не виключена можливість, може бути/статися: Цілком імовірно/Цілком можливо, що вона буде споживати в Мексиці забруднені продукти чи питиме забруднену воду. Може статися, що...
The subjective with the infinitive constructions may be used with some other English verbs as will be seen in the exercise below. They may sometimes influence the choice of faithful Ukrainian equivalents for these English sentences as well.
Exercise IV. Suggest possible contextual equivalents for the subjective with the infinitive constructions below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. They were seen to just touch each other's hano^s, and look each at the other's left eye only. (Galsworthy) 2. «She wants, I'm sure, to be seen today.» (J.G.Griffin) 3. Paper is said to have been invented in China. 4. Her situation was considered very good. (Bennett) 5.... he was impelled to reestablish their lines of communication (Seghal) 6. ... the injured teacher had an operation for a head wound and is said to be improving. (The Guardian) 7. She was not expected to reply, but she did. (Dreiser) 8. «They're certainly entitled to think that, and they're entitled to feel respect for their opinions ...» (H.Lee) 9. The economic problems facing France are certain to have strong repercussions. (The Guardian) 10. They were told to get the children back to sleep. (H.Fast) 11. ... the fetters that bound their tongues were considered to be locked and the key thrown away. (M.Twain) 12. He was thought to be honest and kindly. (Dreiser) 13. He was never expected to recover his equilibrium. 14. «You appear to be in poor shape, all the same.» 15. Her name appeared to be Millicent Pole. 16.1 happen to know young Tasburgh who isn't with his ship. 17. «I just happened to drive up.» (Galsworthy) 18. Bob finds it impossible to keep pace with stroke, because stroke rows in such an extraordinary fashion. (Jerome K.Jerome) 19. ... he seemed to be asking what was the matter with me. (Snow) 20. «I seem to have promised that I'd take you into my laboratory.» 21. «I seem to be getting over it a little.» (M.Wilson) 22. The tower seemed to rock in wind. (Lawrence) 23. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake, and bread and jam. (Jerome K.Jerome) 24. The goods are reported to have been awaiting shipment for several days. (The Guardian) 25. The girl seemed to perceive that a question of taste was concerned. 26. He seemed to take rather a fancy to me. 27. She seemed, indeed, to have heard it before. 28. Some fellows seem to know everybody and exactly how to work them. (Galsworthy) 29. The child is likely to face a first period of uncertainty and bewilderment on being taken into care. (Schimmels) 30. Being subject to endorsement by the Cortes, the «reform» is likely to be of little practical significance. (The Guardian) 31. The money is unlikely to be repaid, unless there is a fundamental change in the policies of the United Federation ... 32. The latest cease fire agreement between the worrying forces in Bosnia is unlikely to hold. (The Guardian)