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ЗАГАЛЬНА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА СИСТЕМИ ВИХОВНОЇ РОБОТИ В СЕРЕДНІХ НАВЧАЛЬНИХ ЗАКЛАДАХ

ВЕЛИКОЇ БРИТАНІЇ

Система виховної роботи Великобританії має багатовікові традиції, які базуються на засадах загальнолюдських та національних цінностей, що дають вагомі позитивні результати як у житті цілої країни, так й у становленні окремої особистості. Тому вважаємо, що її вивчення є доцільним і необхідним у процесі модернізації та реформування сучасної освітньо-виховної системи України.

На основі аналізу різноманітних наукових джерел встановлено, що оновлення освітньо-виховного процесу Великобританії на початку нового тисячоліття зумовлено принципами демократизму, культуровідповідності, систематичності і спрямоване на максимальне сприяння утвердженню загальнолюдських цінностей, виховання толерантних стосунків між різними народами та культурами, формування європейської громадянськості тощо.

Британська система освіти дещо відрізняється від української. А саме: британська передбачає реалізацію 5 ключових етапів: 1–2 етап – початкова освіта, 3–4 етап – середня освіта, 5 етап – “шостий клас”. З огляду на це, ми розглянули зміст та специфіку виховання на рівні середньої освіти (3–4 етап).

В окремих юрисдикціях Великої Британії (зокрема в Шотландії) система освіти відрізняється не лише за структурою, принципами управління, а й за термінологією. У Британії, як і в Україні, школу очолює директор. Йому підпорядковані: заступник – головний учитель (Head Teacher), помічники на кожному ключовому етапі, голови певного року навчання, класні керівники (Form Tutors), вчителі та асистенти вчителів.

Окрім цього, на відміну від України, в британських школах в одному класі може бути 1 або 2 класних керівники. Це залежить від кількості учнів у класі й продиктоване якісним виконанням обов’язків класного керівника. Система виховної роботи Великої Британії, як і України, формує сукупність завдань, зміст, форми та методи, що підпорядковуються загальній меті – цілісному та гармонійному становленню особистості. Вона передбачає активну взаємодію вихователів та вихованців, соціальне середовище, управлінську діяльність та матеріальну базу щодо забезпечення виховної роботи. Останнім часом система виховної роботи в Британії спрямовується на гуманізацію та демократизацію, урізноманітнення та варіативність педагогічного інструментарію, розробку нових перспективних напрямів, зокрема, виховання здорового способу життя, безпечного виховання та особистісно-соціального виховання.

Основні документи, якими послуговуються британські освітяни в педагогічній діяльності є наступні: Endowed Schools Act, 1868 (Закон про школу, який проголосив необхідність надавати освіту представникам обох статей); Public Schools Act, 1868 (Закон про публічні школи); Education Act, 1944 (Закон про освіту 1944 року); Education Reform Act, 1988 (Закон про реформування освіти 1988 року); Education (School) Act, 1992 (закон про шкільну освіту 1992 року); The Schools White Paper “Higher Standards, Better Schools for All – More Choice for Parents and Pupils”, 1997 and 2001 (“Білі Книги” 1997 та 2001 років – збірник стандартів для покращення шкільного становища); National Curriculum (Національний навчально-виховний план) та інші документи, які регламентують діяльність дошкільних, середніх та вищих навчальних закладів.

На підставі аналізу нормативно-правових актів, законодавчих документів та широкої джерельної науково-методичної бази визначено структуру управління системою виховної роботи середніх навчальних закладів Великої Британії. Окрім чіткої ієрархії в управління виховним процесом у сфері виховання підростаючого покоління британські вчені акцентують увагу на важливості позитивного і злагодженого впливу на формування здорового, дитиноцентричного, гуманного виховного поля різних суспільних інституцій: школи, сім’ї, громадських організацій.

Завдяки інформаційним потокам, котрі об’єднують та врегульовують усі рівні управління системою виховної роботи в середніх навчальних закладах остання є ефективною і дієвою.

На підставі аналізу науково-методичних джерел та державних освітніх документів стверджуємо, що на сучасному етапі в основу виховного процесу середніх навчальних закладів Великої Британії покладено концепцію пасторальної опіки, коріння котрої сягає давніх часів. Основними цілями цієї концепції на сучасному етапі є: забезпечення особистісного контакту з кожним учнем та їхніми батьками; контроль за розвитком учнів; надання дітям необхідної підтримки; співпраця з більш широкою освітньою, соціальною та громадською спільнотою, яка спрямована на досягнення основних цілей виховання та ін.


Юрій Редчук

DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN CULT ARCHITECTURE

Of all kinds of art architecture is сlosely connected with society, its history and culture. The problem of national originality, regional peculiarity, inheritance and development of national traditions in Ukranian arhitecture attracts deep attention of scientists, experts in the fields of arhitecture and art. Various aspects of architectural value of ukranian castls can be found in the works of A. Gold’dshtein, G. Logvin., V. Vecherskiy, V. Timofienko. They stressed upon the preculiarites of ukranian arhitecture as well as the ortodox churches.

Ukrainian architecture began developing during the 9th century during the Kievan Rus era. Buildings from this time period were constructed out of wood and included churches, fortifications and palaces. Timber was placed in horizontal sections with a hipped roof, providing a base for further construction. An example of a residential home in this style is seen in Chernihiv. At around the same time the Byzantine style began to take root in Kievan Rus. Both architectural styles had an influence on each other. Byzantine domes were reformed and colors used in decorating became more Rus [1, p. 69].

From the 12th to the 15th century defensive structures such as castles, fortresses and protected monasteries were constructed in populated areas. Decorative patterns can be seen on the massive walls of these buildings in the form of red brick plakhta. Fortified monasteries closely resembled castles, as they were carefully adapted to guard against attack.

Between the 16th and 17th centuries, a new form of architecture arose in Ukraine – Renaissance. This is clearly seen in the the architecture of Ukraine's Lviv. Renaissance style greatly developed Ukraine's Baroque style. Soon a completely Ukrainian form of Baroque architecture was born.

In 17th century, constructions developed rapidly. And on the base of Ukranian baroque, Cossak baroque (Ukranian style) appeared. This style found the most colourfull expression in church building. At that time, the unique churches were built.

The buildings impressed with their porsh style, capturing plastic at settle of front. The new style distinct compositions of elements were: old traditions; wooden architecture, specifically regimental five-parting churh; style effect of neighbouring countries.

Wonderfully designed with expressivecolorfull ornament three-parted churches were build (in Starodub, Gluhiv, Putivl, Sumy). During 16th –17th centuries the first cross-cind in the projects of churches appeared. This line of sacral building development standed common with wooden churches prinsiple building three-parted (the st. Trutsya) and five-parted (Jesus and four Evangelists) buildings that lead to shape tupe buildihg many-stroyed temple. One of the first churches of this type is Mycolaivskiy cathedral in Nizhyn (1668). It is considered, that the cathedral masters from Chernihiv architecture school worked up their metods, carried out the essence of national traditions of wooden building. Five-dome cathedrals had become widespread by the end of XVII century. The church in Luten’ky (1686) belongs to this type, as well as St. George church Vydubytchy Abbey (1701), Preobrazhennya Church in Sorochynci (1732), etc.

Ivan Mazepa belonged to the most famous maecenas in the history of Ukraine. Widespread art direction of his time can be called Mazepa’s baroque. In that time, the ukranian arhitecture was especially reach in monumental buildings, that became the jems of Kyiv, Chernihiv, and Pereyaslav. I. Mazepa built Mykolaivs’ka on Pechers’ka, Troitsk’a and the Main Church of Lavra, Voznesens’ka church in Pereyaslav churches in 1687–1706 [1, p. 46].

Structural art got national style, connected with five-stroyed church on cross-kind base, five on nine-parted. Generaly, among particular architecture forms of the ukranian buildings of the period under our study one can find: structural churdhes; the use of cross-kind plan and border-facing forms in wooden building; mixed of cross-looked-domes plan and baroque front west type.

Development of national temple started in 17th century. Borrowind structural from wooden architecture made up three-parted stone church. One of the notable elements of was the form of a pot. The pot spherical form of vizantian prototypes was transformed according to old-russian arhitecture essentials.

The Ukranian a cross-looked national ortodox place of worship appeared. Tops had some verge form and crowned practiculary pot forms. Upper parts had some verge form, which consists of onion bath and cupolas on a lighter. The form plan of the building can vary from classical Old Russian cross-looked-cupola temple to cross or cross-looked church, number of cupolas varied from one to nine, but the form baroque bath stayed typical [1–2].

The study of the development of national architecture is an important element of national history and culture. It reflects the aestetic representation, cultural idea, and architectural trends of the epoch. Interest in modern Ukrainian church architecture, might also be explained at least in part, by the emergence of a new and independent Ukraine. The new freedoms have unleashed decades of repressed needs and new churches are being built in large numbers. However, in Ukraine, during most of this century, the demands for churches to be unmistakable descendants of earlier Ukrainian Baroque models are so powerful that opportunities to develop contemporary Ukrainian material culture are missed or ignored. Ironically, Ukrainian Baroque, in its time, was a modern innovation and it developed to play an important role in defining Ukrainian culture for quite some time [4, p. 112]. We hope that architects, artists and laypeople will acknowledge that church buildings, as central features of Ukrainian material culture, have a responsibility to be not only complex liturgical vessels and to provide meaningful connections to our past but, just as importantly, to establish valuable connections to contemporary contexts, locally and internationally.

REFERENCES



  1. Історія української архітектури / За ред. В. Тимофієнка – К. : Техніка, 2003. – 435 c.

  2. Вечерський В. Поминальник української архітектури / Віктор Верський // Пам’ятки України. – 1992. № 3-4. – С. 65–69.

  3. Україна. Архітектура міст і сіл. – К. : Державне видавництво літератури з будівництва і архітектури УРСР, 1959. – 234 c.

  4. Крвавич Д. П. Українське мистецтво / Д. П. Крвавич, В. А. Овсійчук, С. О. Черепанова : навч. посіб. : у 3 ч. – Ч. 3.– Львів : Світ, 2005. – 320 c.


Роман Саєнко

KINETIC COMPENSATORY EFFECT IN ONE-ATOM SPIRIT








It is shown in works [1; 2; 3] that the temperature depending of coefficient of displacing viscosity can be described by the expression.

where e – the base of natural logarithms, c – transmission coefficient, DG¹hi and DS¹hi – true meanings of free enthalpy and entropy of activation. Formally, an equation (1) differs from the equation received in the theory of Eiring – Frenkel by a factor (4pec) in . Mathematical similarity in writing of these equations must not consider as simple elaboration in the theory of Eiring – Frenkel that causes to better combination of calculate and experimental quantities. As it is shown in works [1, 3], the equation (1) was recieverd from other ideas about the mechanism of swampy stream and it is based on the methods and ideas of inequilibral thermodynamics. It is worth mentioning that the equation of Frenkel – Eiring can be received from the equation (1) if it is supposed that the liquid behaves itself as ideal gas [4].

Using facts received by us, it was counted the meaning DHη with the help of correlation



(2)

The calculations represent that DH#η increases in a line С3Н7ОН; С5Н11ОН; С6Н13ОН; С8Н17ОН; С16Н33ОН. Then, using the equations

,

(3)

,

(4)

which were got from (1) in an assumption 4pec=1, have determined the empirical value of free enthalpy and entropy activation of swampy stream.

It is seen from received facts that linear depending is watched for researched liquids between enthalpy and empirical entropy of activation of swampy stream (see picture 1.) – kinetic compensatory effect [ 1, 3, 4].





(5)

At the same time the segment, which is separated by a straight line on Y - axis, is equal to value A, but the segment, which is separated on X – axis, is equal Rln4pec.

The results of calculations showed that А=7,9 kJ/mol; » 433 К; c = 3,5×10-3.

Using the relation [1; 4] , (6)

we have calculated the true meanings of entropy activation of viscous flow С3Н7ОН = 18,9 J/mol·K; С5Н11ОН = 21,1 J/mol·K; С6Н13ОН = 22,6 J/mol·K; С8Н17ОН = 26,1 J/mol·K; С16Н33ОН = 34,2 J/mol·K. The link between and can be represented as



.

(7)

The parameter is called isokinetic temperature and is determined as a tangent of angle of declivity that is described by the equation (7). The availability of kinetic compensatory effect points out that the processes of unvaried type are run in researched spirits with swampy stream.

REFERENCES



  1. Шахпаронов М. И. Механизмы быстрых процесов в гидкостях / М. И. Шахпаронов – М. : В. Ш., 1980. – 352 с.

  2. Шахпаронов М. И. Теория вязкости жидкостей. Кинетический компенсационный еффект в н-алканах / М. И. Шахпаронов, В. С. Сперкач // Журнал физ. химии. –1980. – т. 54, №2. – С. 312–315.

  3. Сперкач В.С. Теория вязкости жидкостей. Механизм вязкого течения в воде / В. С. Сперкач, М. И. Шахпаронов // Журнал физ. химии. –1983. – т. 57, № 2. – С. 312–315.

  4. Шахпаронов М. И. Теория вязкости жидкостей. Кинетический компенсационный еффект в н-алканах / М. И. Шахпаронов, В. С. Сперкач // Журнал физ. химии. –1980. – т. 54, №2. – С. 312–315.


Олександра Свиридюк

RUSYNS AS AN ETHNIC GROUP

Nowadays we can face different historical and cultural aspects, considered to be rather disputable. The East Slavic people have become the point in the investigations of many foreign as well as native modern scientists. But there is still much space for deep and all-side research in the given field. That is why a separate question, dealt with the problem was chosen for study and making up analysis. Thus, we believe it to be interesting to begin with such a remarkable fact. In 1875, geographers from the old Hungarian Kingdom erected a monument in a remote region of their country that carried the following inscription: “Precise instruments have confirmed this point where the latitude and longitude lines meet as the center of Europe.” Just over a century later, in 1977, there was erected a second monument to mark the center of the continent. The precise center where the monuments are located is near the village of Dilove in the foothills of the north-central Carpathian Mountains, that from time immemorial has been inhabited by an East Slavic people called Carpatho-Rusyns, or simply Rusyns [3, p. 29]. Thus, in geographic terms, the Rusyns are not a peripheral group, but rather one whose homeland – Carpathian Rus’ – is literally in the heart of Europe.

It is important to keep in mind what is meant by the term Rusyn. Traditionally, the name Rusyn has been used by the East Slavic inhabitants of the Carpathian region to describe themselves. However, by the twentieth century, in particular its second half, the historic names Rusyn (Rusniak)-were replaced by others, such as Ukrainian in Soviet Transcarpathia and the Presov Region of Slovakia, or Lemko in Poland. There are also Rusyns who have given up identifying with any East Slavic group, and instead associate with the dominant nationality of the country in which they live, such as Polish in Poland or Slovak in Slovakia. These changes in national self-designation have in some cases come about gradually, prompted either by intellectual conviction or national assimilation, especially among families of nationally-mixed parentage.

More often, however, the change in nomenclature has been the result of governmental decree banning the name Rusyn from official usage, as was the case after 1945 in Soviet Transcarpathia and Poland and by the early 1950s in Czechoslovakia.

Referring to Paul Robert Magocsi Rusyn – is simply the older historic name for Ukrainian, and that Lemko is a regional name of Ukrainian, while others are convinced that the names Lemko or Rusniak are regional forms for Rusyn which, in turn, designates a people that is distinct from the Ukrainian and every other surrounding nationality” [2, p. 48].

Rusyns never had their own state or political independence. Since the Middle Ages, the Rusyn homeland was ruled by Hungary and Poland or Austria. Nonetheless, during the past century and a half, they have at various times been recognized by neighboring or ruling states as having the right to a territorial entity whose existence was justified on the grounds that it was somehow of and for Rusyns that it would have some degree of autonomy or self-rule.

Although the Rusyn homeland is located in the geographical center of Europe, it is at the same time on a cultural border. It is on that great divide between the Catholic West and Orthodox East

They are, this division has had a profound effect on the Rusyn psyche. Most of the nationalist intelligentsia did agree on one basic premise: that Rusyns are East Slavs, and that their linguistic and cultural traditions were based in the East, albeit with pronounced western influences.

The cultural divide is most graphically evident in what is for traditional Rusyn culture the all-important factor of religion. Some Rusyns are Orthodox, but the majority, at least during the past two centuries, is Catholic, or more precisely Greek Catholic.

These confessional differences reflect a whole mindset that is either western – or eastern-oriented. The eastern mind-set tends to surrender the self to fate in the hope that the Christian God and his intercessors, Christ and the Virgin Mary, might somehow alleviate the burdens of this earthly life. In contrast, the western mind-set seems to feel that if an individual receives education or political training, he or she can somehow put their lives in order and thus be able to have some control over his/her destiny [3, p. 238].

The east-west dichotomy in the Rusyn psyche also impinges on attitudes toward national identity.

Being a stateless people, Rusyns have had, at least until the second half of the twentieth century, to depend on their leaders, the intelligentsia, to determine the precise direction of their national revival. The Rusyn national revival began during the second half of the nineteenth century and culminated during the interwar years, by which time it had evolved into a comprehensive movement concerned with political, cultural, and social issues. Most of the nationalist intelligentsia did agree on one basic premise: that Rusyns are East Slavs, and that their linguistic and cultural traditions were based in the East, albeit with pronounced western influences. What they could not agree upon, however, was whether Rusyns were a branch of the Russian nationality, or of the Ukrainian nationality, or whether they formed a distinct fourth East Slavic Rusyn nationality.

In a sense, the year 1939 marked an end to the natural evolution of discussions about Rusyn nationality. This is because in that year and for half a century, the nationality debate was effectively stifled by state intervention. [1, p. 224] This happened first under fascist regimes in Hungary (which reannexed Subcarpathian Rus’), in Slovakia (which retained the Presov Region), and the German-ruled General-gouvernement (which ruled the Lemko Region); and then as a result of Soviet rule after 1945, whether directly in Subcarpathian Rus (renamed Transcarpathian Ukraine) or through pro-Soviet Communist governments in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

The thing we can be certain of however is that after forty years of Communist rule, Rusyns have not gone away. Today, there are Rusyn organizations, Rusyn publications, and a relatively wide range of writers, teachers, professionals, and peasants who continue to articulate in the press and public manifestation of their belonging to a distinct Rusyn people [2, p. 107].

REFERENCES

1. Magosci P. R. The Rusyn Question / Paul Robert Magosci // Political Thought. – 1995. – №2–3 (6). – P. 221–231.

2. Magosci P. R. The People From Nowhere: An Illustrated History of Carpatho-Rusyns / Paul Robert Magosci. – Uzhhorod : V. Padiak Publishers, 2006. – 120 p.

3. Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture / [edited by Magosci P. R.]. – University of Toronto Press, 2002. – 569 p.


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