Тези доповідей ІV студентських читань



Сторінка8/13
Дата конвертації29.12.2016
Розмір1.6 Mb.
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13

PEDAGOGICAL CULTURE OF TEACHER AS GUARANTEE OF FAIR BIHAVIOUR

In the modern psychological and pedagogical literature devoted to the problems of culture of pedagogical activity, there is no clear and unfolded conception of understanding of pedagogical activity culture and process of its forming. Category development of this concept has begun only in our days.

From the point of view of educational establishments, pedagogical culture is investigated as an essential description of environment, features of the pedagogical system, process of its motion to the new quality state (G. Zvezdunova, E. Zaharchenko, S. Chorna). In individually-personality sense, it is interpreted as a display of essential properties of the personality, professional activity and communication of a teacher (A. Barabanshchikov, T. Belousova, N. Vorobjov, T. Ivanova).

Culture of a teacher is a complex of personal qualities of a professional teacher that provides his creative self-realization in choosing a productive method of the pedagogical activity [1]. A professional teacher must be a highly spiritual personality, with a high level of the professional culture, because according to K. D. Ushinskyj only a personality can form a personality, only a character can form a character, one can give only that what he has, you can educate only those features, which you have yourself.

Pedagogical culture of a teacher is a system formation, which comes out of the professional behavior of a teacher. Therefore, a teacher with a high level of pedagogical culture has theoretical ground of his own pedagogical position, systematic of his pedagogical activity, creation, flexibility and variability in making decisions. Such a teacher has his individual style. He does not only keeps and recreates the spiritual values of education but also creates a form of new technologies, methodologies, didactic and educational systems. Moreover, vice versa, a teacher with a low level of the pedagogical culture shows uncertainty, instability of his own pedagogical position, unsystematic, inconsistence, inability to solve pedagogical problems.

The indexes of a high level of pedagogical culture formation are considered to be: the humanistic orientation of a teacher’s personality; psychological and pedagogical competence and developed pedagogical way of thinking; education in the field of a object, which teacher teaches, and possessing of pedagogical technologies; experience of creative activity, ability to motivate his own pedagogical work as a system (didactic, educational, methodical); culture of professional behavior (pedagogical communication, language, appearance).

Pedagogical culture is an integral feature of teacher’s personality that designs his general culture on the sphere of profession. It is a synthesis of high professionalism and internal features of a teacher, possessing methodology of teaching and presence of the cultural capabilities. It is a measure of creative appropriation and transformation of the experience accumulated by humanity. A teacher that owns a high pedagogical culture has the humanistic way of thinking and consciousness, creative potential and forms a fully developed personality.

It is as insufficient pedagogical culture that, in my opinion, is the main reason of complications in the pedagogical environment that can generate conflicts. Conflicts destroy the system of mutual relations between a teacher and students for a long time, because the state of deep stress for a teacher, discontent by the work; such state is increasedby the realization of the fact that success in pedagogical work depends on behavior of students, the state of dependence of teacher appears from the “favour” of students. Feelings always represent individual attitude toward everything that takes place. The fear of being incomprehensible, complications in the communication create objective pre-conditions to the conflicts in pedagogical interaction.

No matter how skilful and culturally competent the teacher is, but in the process of working with students even now and then, he will have to deal with conflict situations. Crisis phenomena of political and economic life, considerable leveling of moral values in society, the increase of general nervousness and aggression of teenagers increase probability of their origin.

There are no universal methods of avoiding or warning conflict situations. That is one should be able to manage them. At an effective management of conflicts, their consequences can even play a positive role, be functional, effective, and have an educational significance [2].

A teacher with a high level of pedagogical culture, in our opinion, should firmly know the bases of conflict studies and in every separate case clearly realize, or even feel the presence of possible reasons of conflict at subconscious level, danger of his origin before the first displays of opposition and in time react on barely noticeable signals.

Every culturally competent teacher creates his own “treasury” of experience of facilities and receptions of conflicts warning, based on deep knowledge of such fields as pedagogic, psychology, conflict studies. Such educator creates methodologies of psychological training for both: himself and students, he recognizes the terms of life, interests, inner world of each pupil, trying to build the process of cooperation with students on the principles of humanism.

REFERENCES

1. Малаканова Л. Сучасні виховні системи і технології: Професіональна культура вчителя / Л. Малаканова : навч.-метод. комплекс. – Полтава : ПДПУ, 2008. – С. 255–278.

2. Пірен М. І. Конфліктологія : підручник / М. І . Пірен. – К. : МАУП, 2003. – 360 с.
Антоніна Плюйко

ІНТЕРНЕТ ЯК СУЧАСНИЙ ЗАСІБ ВИВЧЕННЯ

ІНОЗЕМНОЇ МОВИ

Сьогодні з-поміж великої кількості інформаційних технологій мережа Інтернет стрімко набуває ознак лідера. Світова мережа відповідає новочасним тенденціям комунікації без обмежень та кордонів, відтак, першорядна дидактична перевага Інтернету полягає насамперед у доступності й актуальності його матеріалів, а також у полегшенні та прискоренні міжнаціональної комунікації.

Специфіка дисципліни “Іноземна мова” вбачається в тому, що головним компонентом її змісту є саме способи діяльності, тобто навчання основних видів мовленнєвої діяльності: мовлення, аудіювання, читання, письма. Для цього необхідна регулярна практика суб’єкта навчання у тому чи іншому виді мовленнєвої діяльності.

Варто зазначити, що опанування мовленнєвими навичками можливе лише в ході спілкування. Діалогічне за своєю сутністю, воно вимагає наявності партнера. Комп’ютерна програма, СD-ROM диск здатні забезпечити лише спілкування з машиною, а не з живою людиною. Виняток становлять хіба що комп’ютерні телекомунікації, коли студент веде активний діалог (усний або письмовий) з реальним партнером – носієм мови.

Зрозуміло, що широке застосування Інтернету під час занять у вищому навчальному закладі обмежується наявністю належно оснащених кабінетів іноземної мови [2, с. 15]. Однак, ураховуючи те, що чимало студентів мають домашні комп’ютери, мережа стає незамінним помічником у виконанні завдань самостійної й індивідуальної роботи. Електронні бібліотеки, енциклопедії, навчальні сайти, форуми знавців іноземних мов тощо роблять Інтернет невичерпним і завжди доступним довідковим джерелом.

Як наголошують учені (М. Євстигнеєв, Р. Омарова, Є. Полат, П. Сисоєв та інші), в дидактичному сенсі світова мережа цінна щонайменше у трьох сферах, де вона дійсно здатна революційно вплинути на процес і результат вивчення іноземних мов. Мова йде про комунікацію, інформацію та оприлюднення результатів досліджень.

Широковідомі форми комунікації – це електронна пошта, чат, форум, ICQ, відео-, веб-конференції тощо. Створені, щоб забезпечити інтерактивне спілкування між віддаленими респондентами, вони виформували відкритий комунікативний простір, що полегшує вивчення іноземних мов, стимулює до активного застосування комунікативних компетенцій.

Всесвітня мережа виконує роль каталізатора подальшого використання нетрадиційних способів надання освітніх послуг. Поширеними прикладами цього є популярні в університетах он-лайн системи дистанційної освіти (які також використовуються у внутрішніх мережах ВНЗ) задля спрощення надання інформації до курсу англійської мови, уніфікації та збільшення рівня об’єктивності оцінювання знань. Такі системи називають системами керування навчанням – СКН (англ. – EMS (Education Management System), LMS (Learning Management System) або системами керування курсами – СКК (англ. – CMS (Course Management System). Найпопулярнішими і найбільш вживаними є Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment), ATutor, Claroline, COSE (Creation of Online Study Environments), CourseWork, Didactor, DoceboLMS, eFront, Fle3, ILIAS (Integriertes Lern-, Informations- und Arbeitskooperations System), I-Study, OLAT (Online Learning and Training) та багато інших.

Інформаційні ресурси мережі містять текстовий, аудіо та відео матеріал з різних тем і на різних мовах. Варто відмітити, що текстові матеріали можуть бути роздруковані та використані в умовах традиційного заняття, так само, як і відео ролики чи аудіо файли. Отже, завдяки Інтернету, свіжа автентична інформація стає загальнодоступною.

Мультимедійні засоби подання навчального матеріалу можна віднести за їхніми функціями до засобів унаочнення нового покоління, які сприяють розвитку наочно-образного мислення; стимулюють увагу студентів на етапі подання навчального матеріалу; сприяють активізації навчально-пізнавальної діяльності; створюють можливості для моделювання процесів і явищ; сприяють формуванню мотивації до навчання; дозволяють досить швидко й об’єктивно оцінити рівень засвоєння навчального матеріалу.

Наголосимо й на тому, що публікація – складник оприлюднення результатів досліджень – нині може здійснюватися шляхом створення авторської сторінки в Інтернеті та завдяки низці електронних видань (у т. ч. збірників матеріалів електронних науково-практичних конференцій) [1; 3].

Таким чином, узагальнюючи викладене, можна твердити, що використання ресурсів Інтернету при вивченні іноземних мов являє собою необхідний аспект ефективної організації академічного процесу.

Інноваційні за сутністю методики покликані забезпечити процес моделювання хай і віртуальних, але життєвих ситуацій, актуалізуючи принцип автентичності спілкування, вмотивовану поведінку студентів щодо вивчення іноземної мови.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Подопригорова Л. А. Использование Интернета в обучении иностранным языкам / Л. А. Подопригорова // Иностранные языки в школе. – 2003. – № 5. – С. 25-31.

2. Полат Е. С. Интернет на уроках иностранного языка / Е. С. Полат // Иностранные языки в школе. – 2001. – № 2–3. – С. 14–19.

3. Сысоев П. В. Современные учебные Интернет-ресурсы в обучении иностранному языку / П. В. Сысоев, М. Н. Евстигнеев // Иностранные языки в школе. – 2008. – № 6. – С. 2–9.

Ірина Прудка

Methods OF teaching “electrodynamics”

in senior school

New content of physical education in secondary school is built on two logically concluded concentres. In a basic school physics is studied at a level of acquaintance with physical concepts and laws, which enable explanation of the most widespread processes of the world. In senior school teaching of physics is at a deeper level of learning which is based on fundamental theories, including electrodynamics – the one, supposed to be studied by school-leavers since the following year.

The 2011–2012 academic year is going to be the first for the graduates, who will study according to the new curriculum. But it should be noted that there are certain difficulties in the transition to new educational content. On the one hand, we have already had the experience of the beginning the year without any textbooks and manuals for 11 class pupils, including the required textbooks on physics. On the other hand, to create new and qualitative books is not so easy, because there could be different profile of a secondary school student (the standard level, academic or profile), so that the content and requirements to learning are different and require appropriate textbook.

Therefore, to facilitate studies of future school-leavers and help teachers of physics in the first term we try to offer a variant for solving these problems – the manual of “Electrodynamics” for the 11 classes of academic level.

While preparing the book, we strove to adhere the principles of “humanization and democratization of education, incorporation of knowledge interests and intentions of pupils, differentiation of content and requirements based on learning abilities and educational needs of pupils” [1, p. 67].

Program provides a sequence of themes of the course: an electric field, electrical capacity, laws of direct current, electric current in semiconductors, electromagnetic interaction, magnetic properties of matter, electromagnetic induction and alternating current. These topics are covered in the textbook.

Special attention in the course “Electrodynamics” for class 11 was paid to the motivation of learning.

Pupils who chose the academic level, of course, may have technical skills and propensities for certain professions (for example, electrical engineering), which are based on electrodynamics. It is therefore necessary to provide a level of physical knowledge, skills and abilities of students to the content enough to continue studying physics as an academic subject in higher education.

In order to increase their interest in learning physics, the information presented in this book, contains many examples taken from life, the content of tasks and objectives are closely associated with life, technology, manufacturing, farming etc. The system of various levels of quality, computational, experimental tasks is provided as well.

Considerable attention was given to use of analogies and models.

Similarities are especially useful in study of inaccessible for direct observation phenomena. For example, when determining the role of a source of electric current, the concept of electromotive force and consideration of energy transformation in circuits of electric current, mechanical analogy were introduced to facilitate understanding of these issues, namely comparison of the current movement of the balls on an inclined spiral path [2, p. 98].

The models that refer mainly to those objects which are not observed directly: atoms, electrons, ions, are of no less importance in study of electrodynamics. For example, in Ohm’s law when bringing the electron theory we using an idea of electron gas, where electrons are considered as material points with electric charges [2, p. 99].

It is known that human thinking is activated when there is some problematic situation. So we decided to include to the book some experiments and experimental tasks that create problematic situations. For example, experimentally for filament bulbs was determined voltage characteristic, which proved a curve, not a straight line, as was found previously in study of metal conductors [2, p. 99]. Pupils should task themselves of studying the dependence of conductors resistance on temperature.

The introduction of study the construction and operation of modern equipment and facilities (such as a computer display, the elements of PC motherboard, etc.) in the course “Electrodynamics” aimed to ensure growth and knowledge of pupils’ interests.

The given book can also be used for training pupils who learns Physics in accordance with programs for both standard and profile levels.

REFERENCES



  1. Програми для загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів. Фізика. Астрономія. 7-12 класи. – К. : Ірпінь, 2005. – 80 с.

  2. Методика преподавания методики физики в средней школе. Молекулярная физика. Основы электродинамики: пособие для учителей / [Б. С. Зворыкин, Ю. А. Коварский, Г. Б. Куперман и др.] – М. : Просвещение, 1975. – 256 с.


Олександр Радченко

A GENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE EQUATION

OF FILTRATION

The determination of many fundamental problems of different nature needs building and solving mathematical models of the processes under investigation. In many cases, the concept of mathematical model is corresponding to some completely defined differential equations, which allow solutions with a certain accuracy to describe the process. Typically, the differential equations and additional conditions (initial, boundary) derived both from the general laws (e.g. conservation laws), and specific laws, are typical to each process (they reflect its most characteristic features).

If we consider a set of differential equations and a set of transformation groups isolated from one another, the issue of classification of objects belonging to them are considered on the basis of input attributes of different nature. That’s way, for differential equations linearity and quasilinearity can be featured as classification properties. For transformation groups isomorphism and homomorphism, structural properties and many others are taken for these signs. However, the group set the analysis of these two studies together, on the basis of conformity between the system of differential equations and its group of invariance.

This property is a mapping and leads to expansion of opportunities for each classification properties of these sets. Since the mapping “equation → transformation group” is not biunique, the effect of transformations on classification opportunities for differential equations should be, generally speaking, more powerful than the reverse effect. Therefore the problem of group classification of differential equations is highlighted.

Following the analysed works [1;2], we shall realise doable group classification of the form

ut = f(ux)uxx, where f′ ≠ 0 (1)

The algorithm method of Lie- Ovsiannikov classification differential equations lies in the following steps realization:

• using the standard method of Lie, we find a core group symmetry of the studied equations defining the system and ranging relation;

• implementing a construction group of equivalence transformations ε the studied equation;

• using the conversion with the group ε, conduct analysis ranging relation and find the possible specifications of an arbitrary element, which is studied in the equation;

• for each of the obtained values with an arbitrary element we solve the determining system and investigate the possibilities expand basic group symmetry of the equation.

So, the method of Lie-Ovsiannikov’s classification of differential equations is effective in cases where the analysis can be developed full classification relations. The first step of the algorithm Li-Ovsiannikov shows that in case of an arbitrary function f = f(ux) equation (1) admits four-dimensional invariance algebra with basis:

v1 = ∂t, v2 = ∂x, v3 = 2t∂t + x∂x + u∂u, v4 = ∂u.

Equality

(2)

we call ranging ratio.

First move to the analysis than ranging relation (2), do the next stage of the algorithm method of Lee-Ovsyannikov, which envisages the construction of the transformation group equivalence ε. To construct ε can be used as a direct method and by the infinitesimal method, which enables relatively easy to calculate its continuous subgroup εс,,

,

, (3)

with coefficients



β1 = a5, β2 = a6, β3 = a5a7a8, β4 = (1 + a6a7)a8,

α = a4, γ1 = a1a4, γ2 = a2a5 + a3a6,

γ3 = (a3 + a2a5a7 + a3a6a7)a8,

(where аі – parameter subgroup with operator Еі,) which is then supplemented by the group of ε. To complement the constructed continuous group εс, note that the mapping t → −t, x → −x is also contained in the group of ε. Accompanied them, get the transformation (3) with arbitrary coefficients α, βi, γi, satisfying only condition nondegenerate α(β1β4β2β3) ≠ 0.

The next stage of group classification of equation (1) provides for the analysis ranging relation (2). For this we use that equivalence ratio equation (1) can be transferred to equation (2): after the equivalence transformation (3) equation (2) looks like:

The set of equations (2) breaks into classes of equivalence, which after integration gives the following value functions with the proper additional symmetry operators



;

, , σ ≥ 0;

, ν ≥ 0

The last stage involves solving the determining equations for each function with the obtained values.

REFERENCES

1. Ахатов И. Ш. Групповая классификация уравнений нелинейной фильтрации / И. Ш. Ахатов, Р. К. Газизов, Н. Х. Ибрагимов // Докл. АН СССР. – 1987. – № 5. – C. 1033–1035.

2. Лагно В. I. Симетрiйний аналiз рiвнянь еволюційного типу / В. I. Лагно., С. В. Спiчак, В. I. Стогнiй. – К. : Iнт. математики НАН України, 2002. – 360 с.
Катерина Рассаднєва,

Лідія Черчата

ESSAY WRITING AS AN EFFECTIVE EXERCISE

IN COMMUNICATION

Writing is known to be one of the best ways to express feelings and thoughts which sometimes cannot be verbally conveyed. Besides, there are many times when we may be required to write an essay as a kind of project at school or at university, professional assignment, or just as a kind of English exam.

The study of literary sources proves the existence of different ways of treating the investigated phenomenon in scientific and methodical fields. So, one of its definitions is a “prose composition with a focused subject of discussion” or a “long, systematic discourse” [1].

A well known New Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus of the English Language explains essay as a writing (often quite short) dealing with a particular subject [2, p. 322]. According to another acknowledged source the definition of an essay is understood as vague enough, for it overlaps with those of an article or a short story. “An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author’s personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author [3].

While working at the problem, we also face an interesting thing, that there is no the only classification of essays’ types. They are rather different and require research as well. Besides, we should remember, that the different varieties of essay will require different types of writing and sometimes a single essay will require more than one type of writing. The analysis of essay types classifications just encourage the researcher to work hard if he wants to clarify the problem. Commonly these types are really different according to different classifications: five-paragraph essay; cause and effect essay; classification essay; admission essay; argumentative essay; comparative essay; critical essay; definition essay; descriptive essay; evaluation essay and the given list is not full.

It is necessary to emphasize, that in some countries (e.g., in the United States), essays have become major part of formal education. Being at secondary schools already, students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing and communicative skills, and admission or application essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants and, in the humanities and social sciences, as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. P. Levin pays our attention on the fact, that the academic world is full of ‘mental constructs’: descriptions, theories and explanations, ideas and critiques. People cannot experience such mental constructs in the same way as they experience the real world, directly, through seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling. Instead they have to get them into their heads through the medium of the written word and the spoken word, via books and articles and web pages, and the lectures that academics give. ‘It’s a peculiarity of academic learning that its focus is not the real world itself but others’ views of that world [4, p. 9].

Most students, some more than others, are often required to demonstrate their learning through this genre during their degree. Many of them might be familiar with the standard steps to write an essay (the introduction, body and lastly the conclusion) on the one hand. To our understanding a good essay is the one, which conveys the appropriate information in a very understandable and simple manner. So, on the other hand, a student should be well informed about types of writing, which also can be different as we said obove. Analytical writing, for instance, makes a detailed examination of something in order to understand its nature and its essential features while chronological writing relates a sequence of events. Compare and contrast writing, in its turn, examines two things and the similarities and differences between them. Descriptive writing gives a picture of the main characteristics of something. Evaluative writing, or, how and why something is important, makes a judgment about something. Summary writing gives a brief account of the important features of something. The analysed material makes it possible to conclude, that there are distinct varieties of essay that require different types of writing. We should also remember that a well-written, effective essay will probably use several of these different types of writing. Knowledge and understanding of this enable use of essay writing as an effective exercise in communication.

Summing up the gathered information, we came to the conclusion, that essays are not just exercises in research; they are also exercises in communication. Essays give a student a chance to show what he can do: that he understands the question asked; that he understands the issues involved; and that he has done the appropriate amount of reading. Essays also allow a person to demonstrate his analytical thinking and force a deep and powerful type of learning to take place. For these reasons, they are considered to be a common form of assessment at university. This form of assessment is frequently used for session assignments and exams.

REFERENCES


  1. Essay // Glossary of Terms [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.gale.cengage.com/free_resources/glossary/ glossary_de.htm. – Назва з екрана.

  2. Essay // New Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus of the English Language. – Danbury, CT : Lexicon Publications, INC, 1993. – 1215 p.

  3. Essay // Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essay. – Назва з екрана.

  4. Levin P. Write great essays: Reading and essay writing for undergraduates and taught postgraduates : Student-Friendly Guides series / P. Levin. – Maidenhead : Open University Press, 2004. – 136 p.


Олександра Рева

1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13


База даних захищена авторським правом ©lecture.in.ua 2016
звернутися до адміністрації

    Головна сторінка