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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT ACTIVITY

The newest information technologies (IT) has firmly entered the modern society along with the learning process of educational institutions. Using the latest IT at secondary schools raises the educational process on a higher level while correlated practice in management of an institution helps to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of administrating. One of the priorities of educational reform at the present stage is the implementation of advanced information technologies, training and educational computer programs (CP), multimedia training to the educational process and management of education in general.

School management is among the areas of effective use of new technologies, creating a common information environment and establishing objectives, and levels of administrative management process.

The question is relevant as the use of ICT in professional administration of the school is also imperative that educational institutions are the first basic step in the chain submission educational management – Management of educational institutions [1].

According to the Law of Ukraine “On education”, activities in the education system are:

  • management – the introduction of information technologies in educational administration;

  • training – the computerization of the educational process and educational work of the institution;

  • research – introduction of ICT in science teaching development.

Therefore, the application of ICT in education and training directly to business and management education institution is already in need of comprehensive schools.

During the introduction of information technology and software in educational administration to determine the optimal conditions for automating job management process of the participants to help organize and raise managers’ work, their deputies, secretaries, teachers, psychologists, social workers, librarians. A constant work of teachers “to improve his identity as professionals is to adapt their individual and unique features to the requirements of educational activities for continuing professional competence and continuous improvement of ethical and other social characteristics of personality” [2, p. 12]. One of the most important requirements of the teacher is the possession of information and communication technologies.

Experience of modern information technology in teaching practice shows that nowadays there is a real opportunity to overcome the resistance of the supporters of traditional forms of teaching by implementing computer technology and teaching materials. IT will surely influence improving the quality of self-education and pedagogical work. Nevertheless, in the era of information society many teachers still have a low level of information culture and need skills to use computers. In this context of information technology in improving the qualifications of not only young professionals, but also experienced teachers will ensure their continued creativity and professional self-determination, allowing them to transfer their own experience with children using traditional and information learning technologies.

Thus, the development of IT has become the impetus for the deployment of the educational process, providing improvement of modern teacher as a user of new information technology training to achieve a new quality of education.

REFERENCES

1. Бабанский Ю. К. Методы обучения в современной общеобразовательной школе / Ю. К. Бабанский. – М. : Образование, 1985. – 535 c.

2. Зайцева Е. Н. Информационно-обучающая среда как способ развития самостоятельной работы студентов при изучении иностранному языку : Автореф. дис. канд. пед. наук / Е. Н. Зайцева. – Ярославль, 2003. – 23 с.


Анастасія Орлова

REFORMING THE EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM

IN UKRAINE

The situation in the economic and social spheres in Ukraine is complicated, for the most part because of demographic changes in population structure caused by the constant decrease of natality, duration of life of the people and the growing number of pensioners. All these factors cause the keen require for pension reform. In this term, the actual task of science and practice of public administration is the further study and analysis of existing problems in reforming the Employees Retirement System in Ukraine (ERSU) and definition of the major directions of their solution.

We should admit, that many national and foreign scientists and practitioners examine different aspects of reforming the Employees Retirement System in Ukraine. Such scientists as O. Vasilchenko, G. Kowalska, P. Matvienko and others contributed to the study of these issues. However, this subject requires further study because of a large number of unsolved problems and the keen social need of developing the effective pension system.

Therefore, we distinguish the aim of the article in making a brief analysis of the current process of pension system reformation in Ukraine and reviewing the problems of pension system functioning. The ERSU is known to be the main component of social security the level of pension provision depends on the state of national economy and the state of social processes regulation [6]. One-level model of pension provision, based on principles of generation solidarity formed historically. Unfortunately, under the modern circumstances such system is inefficient and unable to prevent the spreading of poverty among older people. According to international experience, reforming such pension system is a vital thing [4].

The future Employees Retirement System of Ukraine provides the following pension model:

The first level – the reformed system, based on generation solidarity – a system of pension payments from current revenues to the Employees Retirement Fund, provides a guaranteed minimum income to all the pensioners. All working citizens and their employers pay the Contributions to the ERF. A pension depends on the size of wages and insurance experience.

The second level is a system of accumulation pension accounts within the compulsory state pension insurance. According to it, every worker or his employer reserves money on the personal accumulation pension account of a worker. Income on the accounts will become property of citizens. The capital will be transmitted or invested in economy with the aim of getting investment income payments by the insured persons. Accumulated in such a way sums add to the pensions of the first level.

The third level – the system of voluntary pension insurance – is based on the principles of voluntary participation of citizens, their employers and their associations in forming pension accumulation with the aim of obtaining pension payments by the citizens. The function of supervision of investment and payment of the accumulated resources is executed by non-state pension funds. Non-state pension provision is realized by pension funds, insurance companies, banking institutions [7].

Thus, the reformed Employees Retirement System of Ukraine provides the combination of three levels of pension provision. The first and second levels are treated to be compulsory components of pension provision; whihle the third one is voluntary. According to our research, we can conclude that an efficient Employees Retirement System makes a great impact on social and economic development. For that reason, the main task of the state in the period of socially oriented market economy formation is the foundation of the effective pension provision system. That is why solution of the current problems of pension provision not only contributes to the total welfare of our population, but also creates a powerful source of investment in Ukraine, which is more than ever topical at present [5].

Thus, the Employees Retirement System reforming is able to help in strengthening the financial stability of the pension system, to enlarge the amount of pension payment, to ensure social justice by keeping the principles of the generation solidarity based system, to establish accumulation system of pension insurance and further development of non-state pension provision.

REFERENCES

1. Васильченко О. Пенсійна система України: сьогодення та перспективи / О. Васильченко // Праця і закон. – 2009. – №1. – С. 8–13.

2. Ковальська Г. Актуальні питання реформування пенсійної системи України / Г. Ковальська // Статистика України. – 2004. – №2. – С. 65–69.

3. Матвієнко П. Реформування системи пенсійного забезпечення / П. Матвієнко // Економіка та держава. – 2006. – №10. – С. 65–69.

4. Толуб’як В. Раціоналізація пенсійної системи України / В. Толуб’як // Економіка та держава. – 2010. – №8. – С. 111–114.
Вікторія Пазяк

INDIVIDUALITY OF MANAGER IN CORRELATION

OF MANAGEMENT STYLES

A modern leader obliged to set the problems, determine means of achievement of the purpose and control methods, and manage opinion of his team. A manager as a leader motivates employees on valuable work and achievement of high results.

A legitimate right to dictate will and opinion of a manager through the system of administrative, economic, imperious mechanisms is the general line of administrative activity of leader. The essence of administrative activity in comparison to other forms of human activity consists in acceptance socially meaningful decisions and responsibility for their appropriateness and efficiency that touches interests of many people. Analysis of scientific approaches to the administrative activity and their influence upon personal qualities of a leader on the mechanism of decisions acceptance referred as ‘a style of management’.

The style of management is a systematic display of personal qualities of a leader, manner of his conduct toward inferiors, methods of decision of business problems. The specific of organization makes a certain range for the choice of official conduct of a leader in relation to inferiors and solving professional problems. The choice of the way of such solving depends on individuality of leader – his cultural background, options, character, experience, knowledge etc. It is determined by situation, psychological and social-cultural characteristics [2].

In the style of management fixed general, algorithmic operations and unique operations that represent individual features of a leader as a professional. They characterize his conduct not in general, but in details, appearing constantly in different situations. Style of management is characterized by the complex of receptions and methods, that applied by a leader in his practical activity.

Style of management represents permanent descriptions of conduct of a leader, sets methods of his activity as well as closely associated with the psychological features of thought, method of acceptance of decisions, features of intercourse, etc.

Cardinally changing style of management is hardly possible due to psychological reasons. Personal inclinations of a manager, for example, authoritarian, democratic or liberal forms of conduct depend largely on temperament that depends on the type of the nervous system. At the same time, style is not an inborn quality; it forms in the process of activity and self-development. Hence, it is essential to correct it. A manager has more of guarantees if uses the sufficient arsenal of methods of influencing on inferiors [1, p. 3].

The style classifications are rich in content descriptions of administrative activity. A few widespread conceptions of management styles are widely used in the processes of training of leaders and managers.

The recognized management theorist K. Levin developed the first classification of management styles in 1939. The scholar distinguished the following parameters: decision-making method, method of distributing of functions in the decision of tasks, control form, distributing of responsibility. Using these indexes, three styles of management were typologized [2, p. 141]:



  • authoritarian, is characterized by concentration of all power at a leader, by imposing of his will to the inferiors, objections of initiative and discussion of the accepted decisions;

  • democratic, that encourages collective nature and some initiative, engages inferiors in making and acceptance of common decisions;

  • liberal style (that indulges, is passive), is characterized by the weakly expressed management, keep oneself aloof, removal from itself of responsibility and waiver of power in behalf of organization or collective.

Traditionally defined styles of management are following:


CRITERIA

Authoritarian

Democratic

Liberal

Aims setting

Determined by a leader

Result of group decision at support of leader

Complete freedom for acceptance of individual decisions, minimum participation of leader

Distributing of tasks

All tasks are given out by a leader, an employee does not know, what task he will get next time

Set procedure of distributing of works

A leader gives necessary materials and after the requirement of employee gives information

Estimation of work

A leader personally rewards or punishes employees, but he does not take part in a working activity

A leader tries to use the objective criteria of criticism, taking part directly in work of the group

A leader comments, however does not regulate, does not estimate group work

Labour atmosphere

High tension, hostility

Free, comradely atmosphere

Atmosphere of self-will of separate employees

Motivation of labour

Minimum

High motivation of every member of staff and their groups

Minimum

REFERENCES

1. Грищенко К. К. Управление трудовым колективом / К. К. Грищенко, А. А. Ручка, Н. А. Сакада. – К : Наукова думка, 1988. – 240 с.

2. Кайлюк Є. М., Психологія управління / Є. М.Кайлюк, Г. Г. Фесенко : навч. посіб. – Харків : ХНАМГ, 2007. – 223 c.
Софія Пархомчук

Physical and chemical properties

of mineral oils

The raw material for the production of lubricating oils are petroleum fractions that boil away above. Macromolecular oils are concentrated in these fractions, being at the same time complex multicomponent mixture of hydrocarbons of various groups and their heteroderivative, molecules of which contain atoms of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen and certain metals (nickel, vanadium, etc.). Components of oil fractions have different properties and their contents in finished oils can be useful and necessary or harmful and undesirable. Therefore, the most common way of processing oil fractions for oil is to remove them from “unwanted” components as possible while preserving “desirable” ones, capable to provide the finished products with the necessary physical and chemical and operating properties.

To select the most rational technology of reprocessing oil that enables the set of properties with a maximum output, we should have a sufficiently complete picture of the original chemical composition of oils and oil fractions of those coming for production. Obviously, it is economically and technically appropriate to adapt those oils in heavy fractions of which “preferred” components are dominated. On the contrary, many tar-pyrobitumen substances, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur and other hetero compounds complicates processing, assists small output target products and in many cases does not allow them to provide the necessary quality.

One of the main conditions in study of the chemical composition of raw oil is separation it into narrow homogeneous by composition fractions, analysis of which can give the most complete information about the structure of compounds included in these fractions.

In 1930-1940-s there was a sharp jump in technical possibilities of studying the chemical composition of complex mixtures. To separate heavy oil fractions, along with the methods of distillation and rectification chromatography adsorbents, complexing with carbamide, thermal diffusion were used for. The numerous physical methods of UV and infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, electrical methods (determination of dielectric constant, resistivity and volume resistance, dielectric losses), etc. became widespread. The computational approach determining structural-group composition, allowed a first approximation to get an idea of the composition of oil fractions was in great application as well. New methods of separation and analysis have advanced in our knowledge of composition and structure of heavy oil components and allowed to solve the technological problems of producing oil and chimmotological problems of their rational use under operation conditions.

REFERENCES

1. Казакова Л. П. Физико-химические основы производства нефтяных масел / Л. П. Казакова, С. Э. Крейн. – Москва : Химия, 1978. – С. 7–8.


Олександра Петренко

TOLERANCE FEATURES IN STUDENT SURROUNDING

Period during the late ХХ century – the beginning of the ХХІ century is marked by high number of social and political conflicts all over the world. Obviously, natural and environmental disasters, a wave of post-Soviet revolutions, endless wars, and terrorist actions led to the spread of ethnic conflicts [7, р. 17]. Consequently, the attention of progressive members of the scientific world, politicians, and educators focused on the problem of xenophobia as a new phenomenon for the beginning of the third millennium. This notion is associated with the unfriendly attitude to all foreign, strange and unfamiliar which at the same time is a sign of cultural limitations of a modern person. In turn it encouraged foreign and native scientists to develop and introduce new ways of tolerant coexistence of different nations and nationalities, both within one state, and on a global scale. We consider organization of educational work in this direction to be one of the best ways to overcome the ethnic conflicts.

As we see the urgency of the problem is determined by the importance of public awareness the necessity of education a tolerant personality, forming the youth culture of interethnic relations. We do not accidentally pay special attention in our research to young students, because this age group is characterized by social immaturity, the uncertainty of values and goals, and the inability to predict the full consequences of their actions adequately. That’s why tolerance of this particular social group is especially important against the background of global change of human psychological type itself, mental mutations, that is caused by the modern technological environment with its negative impact on societal values, formed during the Millennium history.

Due to evidence of the intensification of initiatives to prevent public displays of violence, tolerance amongst the youth is a modern European politics. In particular, the European Commission for Education and Culture adopted the youth development program of the EU policy for 2007–2013, entitled “Youth in Action”. In 2007, UNIAN agency started publishing information-analytical weekly paper “Human Rights” in order to spread social advertising materials directed to the formation of tolerance in different age groups.

Ukraine is also making some steps in this direction. Thus, the State Institute of Family and Youth in cooperation with the scientific world and representatives of various ministries and agencies draft the Concept of national revitalization program of youth participation by 2015, which provides education tolerant personality as one of the key areas of youth policy [5].

As we see, the notion of “tolerance” is in active use in connection with efforts of the international community, especially organizations such as UNO, UNESCO, for regulating international relations [1, 103–105]. The problems of tolerance as a social and political manifestation are currently studied by many recognized scientists and explorers, like V. Hamidov, S. Drozhzhinova, V. Lektorsky and S. Shendryk [2].

To understand the concept of “tolerance”, let’s specify it. Thus, linguistic aspects of English tolerance means “readiness to be patient”, French tolerance – “attitude, during which a person recognizes that others may think or act differently than he does”; Ukrainian “терпіння” – is also the ability to withstand physical or mental suffering, real disagreement, without provocation, the ability to receive something is boring, unpleasant, unwanted very calmly for a long time [3]. Similarly encyclopedic definition of tolerance is a tolerance for others’ opinions and beliefs [4].

The Declaration of principles of tolerance, adopted by the UNO in 1995, suggests the following formulation of “tolerance”:



  1. Tolerance means respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world’s cultures, forms of expression and human personality.

  2. Tolerance is not a concession, lenience or indulgence. Firstly, tolerance is an active position, which formulation is based on the recognition of universal human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  3. Tolerance is a responsibility in promoting human rights, pluralism (including cultural pluralism), democracy and rule of law. Tolerance is a concept that means the rejection of dogmatism and absolutism, establishing norms fixed in international instruments on human rights [6, р. 265–273].

More often ethnic tolerance among young people presents itself as an active moral strength, attitude and willingness to interact with other cultures, ethnic groups, people of different nationalities. It acts as a basis for settlement of social and ethnic conflicts, relaxing and achieving mutual respect of interests and values of all peoples.

Let’s note that nowadays student environment is one of the most intensive areas of inter-ethnic contacts. Overall, student’s age ranges from 17 to 22 years old and is an extremely important period for the development of ethnic identity. The environment of a higher educational institution provides a young person with the opportunity to form his/her ethnic identity, develop his/her ideas of the world and learns to strengthen his/her place within that world.

At the same time, most students have difficulties communicating with other cultures because of lack of knowledge of societal norms, rules of behavior in the modern society, respect for modern cultures and their representatives, various skills to tactful interact [1, 79–85; 2; 3].

That is why, high school education should focus on forming tolerant behavior in boys and girls through education, compassion, inner peace, love, loyalty, and peacefulness.

We consider that to optimize education of tolerance and to encourage students to communicate and interact with another culture, it is necessary to:


  • study and satisfy the interests of different nationalities in student groups;

  • bring up the manifestations of intolerance of national nihilism, and national arrogance in students;

  • form an idea about the variety of cultures in Ukraine and abroad, bring it up to the positive cultural differences in the youth;

  • create the conditions for the interaction of students with other cultures;

  • bring up students in the tradition of peace, tolerance, interethnic communication [2; 3; 7, 112–114].

So, based on the above considerations, conclusion can be made that brining up tolerance of the students of different ethnic groups is an important and essential condition for the effective functioning of society.

REFERENCES



  1. Гайсина Л. Ф. Готовность студентов вуза к общению в мультикультурной среде и ее формирование : монография / Л. Ф. Гайсина. – Оренбург, 2004. – 435 с.

  2. Гасанов Н. Н. О культуре межнационального общения / Н. Н. Гасанов // Социально-политический журнал. – 1997. – № 3. – С. 233–238.

  3. Гасанов Н. Н. Особенности формирования культуры межнационального общения в многонациональном регионе / Н. Н. Гасанов // Педагогика. – 1994. – № 5. – С. 12–20.

  4. Жданова І. Молодь і толерантність в сучасній Україні (національно-етнічний аспект) / Ірина Жданова. – Агора. Перспективи соціального розвитку регіонів. Випуск 7. – К., 2008. – С. 25–35.

  5. Майборода О. Сприяння поширенню толерантності у поліетнічному суспільстві / О. Майборода, Р. Чілачава, Т. Пилипенко. – К. : Фонд “Європа XXI”, 2002. – 312 с.

  6. Правові засади захисту особистісних цінностей та суспільної моралі : зб. норм. актів України / уклад. Ю. Шайгородський, К. Меркотан. – К. : Український центр політичного менеджменту, 2007. – 440 с.

  7. Толерантність у поліетнічному суспільстві : питання теорії і практики / упор. Ю. Тищенко, І. Підлуська, К. : Фонд “Європа XXI”, 2003. – 156 с.


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