ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF AUSTRALIA
The idea of practicing any foreign language cannot be realized without having certain account of country-specific knowledge. Thus, students should get information about different spheres of native speakers’ life. In this respect the theme of a detailed study of the English speaking country, whichever one prefers looks as a topical problem. Australia is the smallest continent on our planet, where 120 nationalities live. It is often called the Green Continent.
The Indian and Pacific oceans wash Australia. It could be surprised to find out that the water around this continent is the very place where whales give birth their babies. Australia has eucalyptus forests. In the dry areas strange bottle trees, which keep water in their trunks, grow . Australian continent really looks like a paradise. But this part of world could not avoid a number of ecological troubles other parts face with nowadays. The analysis of theoretical material makes it possible for us to differentiate some of the most vitally important of them: soil erosion, disruption of natural nutrient cycles, water supply; and to underscore the importance of their solving as well.
Soil loss resulting from wind or water erosion is a major ecological problem in many parts of the world today, especially in Australia. It is largely the consequence of land being denuded of a protective cover of vegetation as a result of over-stocking with cattle or sheep or the widespread use of the plough and other cultivation implements in areas with shallow topsoil. It can also come about as a result of disruption of the soil surface in the construction of roads and buildings.
Soil erosion leads to greatly reduced bioproduction and reduced biodiversity. In Australia the wheat and sheep areas of New South Wales, for example, are subject to serious soil erosion .
Disruption of natural nutrient cycles is, in fact, of no less significance for environmentalists of Australia. In natural ecosystems there is continual recycling of nutrients involved in the processes of life, and the continued bioproductivity of these systems is dependent on this cycling process.
Human activities can interfere with natural nutrient cycles by extracting nutrients from farmland in the form of food, and eventually disposing of them in organic waste, which is not returned to the farmland. Consequently, there is a progressive loss of key nutrients from food producing ecosystems. Serious soil erosion resulting from poor farming practice can also lead to permanent loss of nutrients.
At present, this problem is largely overcomed by replacing the extracted nutrients with artificial fertilisers, like phosphorus and nitrogen from other sources. This, in turn, often builds up a high level of acidity in soils, which then requires neutralisation with lime. There are serious doubts about the long-term sustainability of these practices .
Speaking about environmental problems of Australia, we cannot but say about water supply. The matter is that the ecological sustainability of any community is dependent on an adequate and reliable supply of clean water. The rate of use of water in many Australian cities and townships is unnecessarily high, and serious water shortages are likely in the future. It is clear that measures that are more effective aim to reduce the rate of consumption. These will include steps to minimize wastage of water, and recycling of grey water for purposes other than drinking. Over the past fifty years Australian water supply authorities have had to use an increasing number filters chemicals and treatments to counter the deteriorating quality of water from reservoirs .
We think this overview has summarised the major human-induced ecological issues encountered in Australia now – ranging from local causes for concern through to some issues of global significance.
The causes of the current ecological unsustainability of human societies across the world, including Australia, need also to be considered at a more general level. It is clear, for example, that a major factor is the sheer scale of human activities and their impacts. There are two underlying causes of this:
The number of humans now living on our planet – There are now about 1000 times as many people on the Earth as there were when some of our ancestors started farming, around 450 generations ago. Most of the increase in population has occurred since the beginning of the industrial transition, some eight generations ago. Since that time over 5000 million people have been added to the global human population, bringing the present total to well over 6000 million. This change inevitably means a colossal impact on agricultural ecosystems.
Changes in patterns of human activity – a major trend with widespread ecological repercussions has been the massive intensification of industrial activities over the past few generations, involving enormous increases in the rate of use of resources and energy and production of technological wastes. This change has so far mainly occurred in the developed nations and is associated with intense consumerism and increase in material standard of living. The amount of carbon dioxide produced by the human population every day, for example, is about 12 000 times what it was when farming began. One tenth of this increase is directly the result of the growth in population, while the rest is due mainly to the use of fossil fuels in manufacturing, transportation and the production of electricity.
Thus, in our opinion, the conclusion of the given article can be twofold. On the one hand, it is too difficult in our days to make people understand that they must take care of nature and the lands they live on. We think, the solution of ecological problems in Australia is to find another ways of using natural resources and make human activity safer for animals, plants and lands. On the other hand, getting knowledge on the problem in the language of native-speakers not only familiarizes a person with it, but encourages him to master this language, to know more about the country and people, who live in it.
Environment of Australia [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://en.wikipedia.org. – Назва з екрана.
Ecological issues in Australia today [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.biosensitivefutures.org.au. – Назва з екрана.
PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE AND FEATURES
OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE
The natural environment encompasses all living beings and non-living things occurring naturally on the Earth or some region thereof. It actualizes such phenomenon as ecological culture as culture of all human activities connected with knowledge, development and transformation of nature.
Ecological culture consists of knowledge and deep understanding of environmental standards, development of a sense of civic responsibility for the nature of environmental activities and direct participation in their implementation [1, с. 123].
Ecological culture is a part of world culture, which is characterised by deep and general awareness of the importance of contemporary environmental problems in the life, learning and development of peoples. School should educate students in the spirit of love for Mother Nature, and environment.
A child who comes to the first grade has not yet any strong opinions, beliefs and interests. Therefore, the mission of an educator is to form ecological thinking and culture, to teach younger generations how tolive in harmony with nature, to achieve that sense of personal responsibility for life on the planet.
Learning environment should be active, interesting, and rational. Moreover, in educational material should not be a component that children are unable to perceive properly.
V. O. Sukhomlynsky thought that nature itself does not develop or teach. Leaving a baby alone with her is enough to have a hope that it will become intelligent and moral. Only active interaction with nature can bring the best human qualities.
Ecological cultures of juniors include:
knowledge about the interrelation relationships in nature and human consciousness as its part;
understanding the need to protect the environment;
ability and skills of positive influence on nature;
understanding the nature of aesthetic value;
negative attitude of the children to any damaging environmental effect.
Each person forms deliberate and careful attitude to the nature in the context of ecological culture that is why broad ecological knowledge should be formed since childhood. Knowledge of environmental regulations, laws of nature, dating with the mysterious world of animals, plants, the peculiarities of their behaviour will enable a personal responsibility for the future of the nature.
The goal of ecological culture education is the formation of scientific knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, providing a foundation of responsible attitudes towards the environment. The success of environmental education depends on a number of educational requirements. The implementation of environmental education actualizes a complex of methodological tools and techniques to the study of nature; any communication with it affects feelings and consciousness.
Such games as quizzes, tours, traditional signs, environmental research have an impact, because they form as an essential condition for effective formation of ecological culture of the junior students. Success of environmental education depends largely on consideration of a number of educational requirements. The aspects of conditions of effective learning of personal environmental awareness and education based on ecological culture are still under discussion. According to teachers, the main condition for the successful formation of ecological culture of pupils is a skill mix of environmental educational material content of the practical activities of students in the natural environment.
Psychologists note that at different stages of their lives in different ways students understand and perceive the environment. In addition, each student has his other inherent features of cognitive activity, emotional life, liberty character behaviour, etc. Every pupil needs an individual approach based on the study and incorporation of psychological features of his personality [2, с. 85].
Therefore, to achieve positive results in environmental education it is important to note age and individual characteristics, traits, attitudes to learning needs and abilities of each student. Only developing environmental culture the teacher will be able to provide full and conscious perception of coherent educational material.
Primary school opens enormous opportunities for this, because of foundation of intelligence, the thinking structure, natural curiosity of children, and sincere interest in the environment.
1. Гладюк Т. В. Ідеї формування екологічної культури молодших школярів у педагогічній спадщині В. Сухомлинського / Т. В. Гладюк // Наукові записки ТДПУ ім. В. Гнатюка : Педагогіка. – Тернопіль, 2002. – Вип. 5 – С. 123–129.
2. Філософія екологічної освіти / М. Дробноход // Освіта. – 1996. – С. 85.
DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF CHITOSAN IN ITS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS
Chitosan is the second most common natural polysaccharide after cellulose on earth. It is the main constituent of the skeleton system of the cells in crawfish shells, cell structures of fungi and bacteria. Chitosan is composed of β(1→4)-linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose and is easily derived by N-deacetylation . It is widely used in medicine, pharmaceutics, agriculture, food, textile and other types of industries. Chitosan is known for its unique properties such as biocompatibility, forming complex compounds with metal ions, regenerative influence on the body tissues. Besides that, it appears to be non-toxic, fungistatic, hemostatic, and antibacterial . The effective usage of chitosan requires reliable and accurate methods for its quantitative analysis. The conductance-measuring methods that are used today are not accurate enough and slow, that is why it is necessary to develop a new way of determination of the concentration of chitosan in different solutions.
The research is aimed to determine the effectiveness of photocolorymetry as a method of analysis based on the measurement of the absorption level of the non-monochromatic radiation of the colored substances . Since chitosan has a great potential to be used for the production of wound-dressing materials, ointments, creams and other kinds of medications, its solutions in 2% lactic acid were used for the analysis. First, the solutions of chitosan in 2% lactic acid with the following concentrations were prepared: 4%, 3%, 2%, 1,5%, 1%, 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,1%, 0,05% and 0,025%. The total number of the samples was 10. That was enough for the analysis to be made and calibrating chart to be drawn.
As solutions of chitosan are colourless, ninhydrin and p-dymethylaminobenzaldehyde (Erlich’s reagent) were used as dye agents. The aldehyde group of Erlich’s agent interacts with the aminogroup of chitosan resulting in the formation of a bright yellow base called Shiff’s base. The brightness of the solutions increased with the increase of the concentration of chitosan in the samples. The other group of solutions turned blue after ninhydrin was added to them and the solution was boiled for an hour. The interaction of chitosan with ninhydrin results in formation of a blue complex compound called Ruemann’s blue. The rate of radiation absorption and optical density were measured for all the samples prepared. The results obtained were presented in a form of a chart. The chart shows that the increase of the concentration of the solution results in the increase of optical density and decrease of the radiation absorption.
To make sure the results are accurate and can be used in the production of different materials and solutions, the following samples were prepared: 0,75% and 2,5% solutions of chitosan in 2% lactic acid. The analysis of the samples was made according to the method stated above. The results of the analysis and ones theoretically calculated according to the chart were very close to each other. That proves the fact the concentration of chitosan in different solutions can be determined with the help of photocolorymetry.
Thus, photocolorymetry is proved to be an effective and accurate method for the quantitative analysis of chitosan.
1. Аналитическая химия (аналитика). Книга 2. Количественный анализ. Физико-химические (инструментальные) методы анализа / под ред. Ю. Я. Харитонова. – Москва : Высшая школа, 2001. – 560 с.
2. Peter M. G. Advances in Chitin Science / M. G. Peter, A. Domard, R.A.A. Muzzarelli. – Potsdam : Universität Potsdam, 2000. – 120 p.
3. Uragami. Chitin and Chitosan in Life Science / Uragami, K. Kurita, T. Fukamizo. – Tokyo : Kodansha Scientific Lyd, 2001. – 86 p.
COMMUNICATION AS A DRIVING FORCE OF EFFECTIVE PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF EDUCATIONAL
No person can live a single day without communication, in view of the fact that we are among the other people constantly. Every day a person who comes to work, both a leader and an employee, should interact. Communication as interaction suggests that members of a team of professionals contact with each other, exchanging information to build a joint venture, cooperation.
It is necessary to provide proper communication for the effective functioning of any organization. However, management practice gives an opportunity to state that the creating of an effective reliable information exchange system that would meet the requirements of completeness, adequacy, efficiency, and flexibility is one of the main problems in organizations.
Communication is a complex process that involves several interrelated steps each of them plays an important role in the understanding and perception of information by other person. The most common cause of low efficiency of communication is ignoring the fact that communication is the exchange, where every one takes an active part. The sender makes some message and sends it to the addressee (beneficiary) in the process of communication
Communication is a process of contact employees, departments, organizations, etc. [2, p. 56]. Its structure, implemented by G. Andreeva forma a fundamental principle of the analysis of communicative skills development. Communication allocates three major components:
communicative (information exchange);
perceptual (understanding of one another).
The given above components do not usually exist in some pure, isolated form. All the components, intertwined simultaneously. Moreover, communication can be creative and reproductive, deep and superficial, manipulative and subjective. According to L. Petrovska, the developed communication has some closely linked facets: communication on the subject-objective basis and that on subject-subjective basis.
Developed communication skills determine manager’s possibility of establishing and maintaining contacts in communication, prognosing of individual behavior and activity. Proper understanding of the personal properties and the actual state of relations between partners is very important.
Communicative skill provides some level of psychological culture, such as talent of understanding others, adequate reacting to their behaviour and choosing forms of address according to individual needs of the partner in communication.
Communicative culture of personality as well as communicative competence does not occur out of nowhere – it is formed. The source of forming of psychological communicative culture is, above all, personal spontaneous experience, enriched with theoretical knowledge, as well as forming the capacity for empathy and the ability not to humiliate the dignity of others. [1, p. 105–107]
Communication skills are based on some communication abilities, their basic component is sociability. A sophisticated quality includes the ability to feel pleasure from the process of communication, social relationship (desire to be among other people) and altruistic tendencies. Hence, communication skills are the skills of communication with people, which affect its success. People of all ages, education, levels of psychological development, and professional experience, differ from each other by communication skills. Educated and civilized people have better communication skills than ignorant ones.
The purpose of development of communication skills has nothing in common with the abilities to manipulate others. It aims the development of the ability to create oneself or together with partners encouraging conditions and environment for psychological growth of a person [3, p. 87].
Thus, the results of theoretical analysis determined that formation of communication skills helps managers to develop tolerance, empathy and communicative strategies vital for their essective professional activity.
1. Дунець Л. М. Психологія спілкування : навч. посіб. для студентів спеціальностей “Соціальна педагогіка” та “Практична психологія”/ Л. М. Дунець. – Хмельницький : ТУП., 2003. – 142 с.
2. Осовська Г. В. Комунікації в менеджменті / Г.В. Осовська. – К. : Вища освіта, 2003. – 138 с.
3. Сарапулова Є. Г. Психологія управління / Є. Г. Сарапулова, П. С. Єщенко. – К. : Університет “Україна”, 2006. – 164 с.
ОКСФОРД: КОЛИСКА АКАДЕМІЧНИХ ТРАДИЦІЙ
Розвиток ідеї класичного Університету в європейській культурі охоплює понад півтисячоліття з моменту зародження перших університетів у Італії у ХІІ–ХІІІ століттях, а згодом в Англії, Франції, інших європейських країнах. Слава одного з найстаріших вишів Європи – Оксфорда заснована на вірності численним традиціям, багатьом із яких понад 800 років.
Традиції – це досвід, звичаї, погляди, смаки, норми поведінки, що склались історично і передаються з покоління в покоління і зберігаються протягом тривалого часу .
Саме плекання академічних традицій вирізняє Оксфордський університет, робить його унікальним навчальним закладом. Порівнювати в цьому сенсі британську та українську системи освіти, як зазначає О. Пузікова, неможливо, бо вони абсолютно різні. В Україні студент повинен слухати і сприймати те, що каже викладач. Основні види діяльності – перечитування, переписування, цитування, але ніяк не публічне обстоювання своєї думки, свого бачення. У Британії студенти самостійно працюють, а потім відбуваються палкі дебати, де ставляться питання, які потребують глибокої аналітики, вичерпної аргументації . Важко не подитися з О. Пузіковою, що все залежить від того, що суспільство хоче отримати, надаючи освіту своїм громадянам. Якщо воно хоче отримати людей, які не будуть сумніватись і чітко слідуватимуть інструкціям, то це українська освіта. Якщо ми хочемо отримати державу і людей, які вміють жити не просто на території України, а орієнтуються у світовому просторі, розуміють, що сьогоднішній день – це день технологій і глобального світу, де мови і контакти – все, підхід до освіти має бути британський .
Британська освіта – мікс багатовікової системи цінностей, знань, традицій, де окреме місце належить фізичному вихованню. Освічена людина мусить бути фізично прекрасною і гармонійною, тому кілька годин на день виділяється на фізичні вправи, традиційні для Британії: плавання, гольф, поло, кінний спорт, яхтінг. По суті, мова йде про щоденну практику реалізації декларованої в Україні концепції здоров’язбереження, культу інтелектуального й фізичного розвитку особистості.
Якісно відрізняється від звичного в нашій країні й сама процедура вступу до провідного британського вишу, котрий дає, без перебільшення, елітну путівку в життя. Для Оксфорду мало знань (цьогроріч, аби вступити до Оксфорда, вимагався рівень знань не просто “A” (найвищий рівень), а “A star” – “A” із зірочкою. Тобто не “відмінно”, а “блискуче”! [1–3]), треба зарекомендувати себе, довести, що ти гідний називатися студентом .
Традиції ґрунтуються на автономії. Сорок коледжів універститету не лише активно пропагують свою історію та символіку, а й визначають коло дисциплін, формують викладацький склад, мають бюджет і навіть землеволодіння. За традицією, студенти мешкають у коледжі, там само харчуються. Спільні вечері студентів та професорів при світлі свічок за довгими дубовими столами – незмінна церемонія. Святкові вечері належать до категорії black tie, тобто вимагають дотримання дрес-коду. Історично в Оксфорді формувався свій стиль одягу: “Оксфордські туфлі” – чоловічі черевики на шнурках, “оксфордетти” – жіночі черевики на шнурках, товстій підошві та низькому підборі, “Оксфорд бегс” (буквально “Оксфордський мішки”) – широкі штани з сірої вовняної фланелі та, природно, мантії .
Отже, автономії по-оксфордськи властиві не лише академічний, а й соціальний, культурний, господарський аспекти.
Акцентуємо увагу й на тому, що деякі традиції нагадують музейні екземпляри, призначення яких не завжди зрозуміле. Так посвята в студенти – Matriculation – і сьогодні проводиться по-латинськи, а кожен із нових бакалаврів отримує від ректора три відчутних удари Білією по голові. Про кількість складених іспитів розповість колір гвоздик (білий, рожевий, червоний), які носять на лацканах під час сесій.
Вірність автентичним методам навчання робить випускників “людьми з Оксфорда”. Аналіз публікацій та інформації, розміщеної на інтернет-сайтах, свідчить, що основні традиції Оксфордського університету торкаються власне системи навчання, що виформувалася протягом сторіч, та дістала всезагальне визнання. Тьюторські заняття, справжня демократичність і самостійність суб’єкта педагогічного процесу, беззаперечна об’єктивність оцінювання, культ індивідуальної позиції студента, повага до викладача, міцне та непідконтрольне адміністрації студентське самоуправління – все це складники академічного підґрунтя, вивчення якого може дати орієнтири розвитку вітчизняній вищій школі, яка нині переживає не найкращі часи. Цікавим уважаємо й те, що протягом навчального року студент отримує тільки одну офіційну оцінку – екзаменаційну, а в разі невдачі на екзамені, може виправити оцінку тільки через півроку, чим ризикує втратити репутацію в очах викладачів, яку набував із першого дня навчання .
Таким чином, академічний престиж, елітарність найстарішого британського університету ґрунтуються на дотриманні традицій.
Оксфорд глазами англичан [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : htt:www. 2uk.ru/articles/art76. – Назва з екрана.
Образование в Оксфорде: особенности поступлення [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : htt:www.educationindex.ru. – Название з экрана.
Обучение в Великобритании: традиции [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : htt:www.Yastudent.ru/articles/2/3/ 2895. – Название с экрана.
Оксфорд – студенческий рай [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : htt:www. Perfectum.kz/ru/polernaya-informatsia/statyi-vypusknikov/ 29-oxford-studencheskii-rai. – Название с экрана.
Словопедія [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступа : htt:www.scovopedia.org.ua. – Назва з екрана.
Пузікова О. На британську освіту завжди буде попит – це класична інвестиція у майбутнє / Олена Пузікова [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://moemisto.com.ua/ 16324. – Назва з екрана.
Чиняева Е. Оксфорд и великолепие его традиций / Елена Чиняева // Обучение за рубежом. – 1998. – №1. – С. 28–30.
COACHING IN MODERN LANGUAGE LEARNING
The term “coaching” represents a widespread trend in sport, business and interpersonal educational activity.
Literal translation of the word “coaching” means “trainer’s work”. Notably a coach is a person capable of winner making.
Etimologically the word “coach” in the sense of “carriage” has Hungarian roots. It was borrowed into English in XVI century to denote “something rapidly delivering to the objective”. At a later dates, in XIX century, the British students named so all private teachers and afterwards – their sport trainers. By the end of that period, the term had acquired a new denotation: “any activity, connected with tutorship, guidance, leadership”.
Coaching is constructed upon discoveries in various social areas. In the simplest way, it is a compendium of effective paradigms, techniques, approaches. The western scholars have been step-by-step developing the fundamental nature of coaching on the ground of reflection and leading approaches towards leadership, business consulting and even psychotherapy.
In 1995 the International Coach Federation was formed. The leading global organization with over 15,000 members dedicated to advancing the coaching profession by setting high professional standards, providing independent certification, and building a network of credentialed coaches. The Federation defines coaching as partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximize their personal and professional potential. Coaching is the topic of business communication at forums, conferences, working events, etc. The principles it is based are:
coaching focuses in future possibilities and not past mistakes. For getting the best of people, the coach must believe in their potential. What we believe about other’s capabilities have a direct impact in their performance;
coaching work is based on a trust and confidentiality relationship between the coach and coachee;
the coachee does not learn from the coach, but from himself (encouraged by the coach). Although sometime is not easy, the coach must avoid transfer his own experience to the coachee, because if so, he will be breaking one of the basic principles of coaching .
As the coaching technique helped hundreds of people to develop and make a considerable progress in profession, coaching has gained topicality in the sphere of education and language learning in particular (though in our country the term has not gained a due popularity yet). Nowadays language coaching (LC) focuses on the communicative and cultural needs of a personality, facilitating educational efforts, etc.
In foreign researches LC is defined as a type of assistance provided individually or to a small groups of students that addresses complex challenges to learning, teaching, and assessment of language and opens the gate to exploratory, self-critical, and reflective dimensions of interaction through a process of inquiry that is co-constructed and dialogic . It is also mentioned that “language coaching is similar to any other coaching situation: whether it is a basketball coach, a personal trainer or a life coach” .
Language coaching is, first of all, a kind of vital individual co-education and co-development of an educator and a student. It helps to make a creative training situations, offers feedback, provides encouragement and gives direction to facilitate the most effective and efficient learning program for each individual or study group.
LC is constantly a result-oriented strategy. A great number of users of English benefit more from a coach providing language support than a teacher in terms of “mentor” or “inspector”.
The role of language coach is to assist the learner in the next aspects:
to take charge of his (her) own learning program;
to identify and solve problems;
to help in setting language learning objectives;
to help in developing and implementing the strategic plan for language and culture learning;
to provide expertise, ideas, encouragement and responsibility;
to learn through experience;
to self-manage the language learning process;
to increase language learning motivation.
The key principles of LC are partnership, potential disclosure, result while its mega-purpose is to enrich the mind with the value of language learning.
According to M. Danilova and A. Savkin, one of the underlying tasks of any instruction is not only to teach something but, first of all, to teach now to study, to obtain, to find out the necessary information. It is coaching that starts up an engine of learning via personal motivation of students to acquire knowledge without assistance [1, p. 23].
In this sense LC has, in our opinion, much common with the ideas of independent learning as a process, a method and a philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge by his or her own efforts and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation. Language coaching from this point of view answers adequately a challenge to provide the correct amount of guidance without providing too much direction.
A coach encourages a creative search of problem decisions and supports the student in attaining his (her) goals coupled with making changes in personal attitude towards language learning itself. In other words, during the process of coaching the students find their own, their unique way of objectives achieving while the coach creates all conditions for it. The main duty of a coach is to find the best traits of the student while the student has to share responsibility for such thing as his own academic progress. Stimulating factor for coaching is constantly growing requirements for changes.
It is true to say that coaches do not deal with general language problems but with communicative goals, choices, and facilities. Atmosphere of creativity, independent searching of alternatives and confidence is a fundamental factor of LC. The sense of participation in learning activity and self-evaluation of language learning progress generates inner motivation and, as a result, enthusiastic communicative activity. LC is not a substitute for traditional language classes, but it is a resourse for overcoming the main psychological barriers to achieving fluency in a foreign language and such personal weaknesses as, for example, nervousness, shyness, lack of concentration, etc.
Coaching, hence, as a type of educational partnership aimed achieving indispensable compatibility and faith. The central category of it is mutual relations of an educator and students under which the first one organizes the process of searching by the last one the greatest solutions of the problems by force of personal communicative progress promoting. A coach helps the students to develop, to assimilate the new experience, to master the language units and skills.
1. Данилова М. Развитие и обучение персонала глазами коуча / М. Данилова, С. Савкин // Коучинг : истоки, подходы, перспективы. – СПб. : Речь, 2003. – С. 20–24.
2. Coaching [Electronic resource]. – Mode of Access : http://www.everyday languagelearner.com/coaching-2. – Title from the screen.
3. Sherries A. Coaching Language Teachers / A. Sherries // CAL Digest. – [Electronic resource]. – Mode of Access : http://www.cal.org/ resources/digest/coachinglangteachers.html. – Title from the screen.
DEVELOPMENT OF “BIBLIOMIST” PROGRAM IN UKRAINE
“Bibliomist” is the most ambitious program of modern public libraries development in Ukraine. It is a cooperative work of the Council for international scientific investigations and exchanges (IREX), the USA Agency for international Development (USAID) and Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Ukraine. Bill and Melinda Gates supported the project granting 25 million dollars of the USA. “Bibliomist” collaborates with the Ukrainian library association, central and local authorities all over Ukraine to help them in satisfaction of the demands of local communities more effectively due to teaching and using modern technologies.
As soon as the program “Bibliomist” started the initial stage of providing the Ukrainian public libraries with computer equipment and connecting them to the Internet began. This stage resulted in creating 25 trainings centers, one per every region of Ukraine including the autonomous republic Crimea. Also 25 district libraries and their branches were also equipped with computers and network technologies, necessary for training and users provision for public access to the Internet [1, p. 47–48].
There are specially organized training centers, with correspondent modern equipment in every regional universal library of Ukraine. The librarians are taught to use information technologies for introducing new services for the visitors, and at the same time the visitors are taught to use the possibilities of these technologies. It should be said, that already equipped training centers started up their work in September 2010.
The “Bibliomist” program presupposes, that up to 2013 about 1600 public libraries of Ukraine will be equipped with computers and have access to the Internet. The complete sets of devices except computers include scanners, printers, veb-cameras, and earpieces. The courses of professional development will enable librarians to serve the necessities of local citizens, videlicet to teach them the newest technologies, to communicate without limitations, find necessary information of professional and entertaining character, introduce own initiatives, etc. “Bibliomist” program also encourages libraries wider to co-operate with public organizations and introduce actual and vital projects in accordance with the queries of visitors [2, p. 2].
1. Десподова-Пайковскі Д. “Бібліоміст” в Україні / Д. Десподова-Пайковскі // Бібліотечний форум України. – 2009. – №4. – С. 7–48.
2. Програма “Бібліоміст” Електронний ресурс. – Режим доступу : http://www.bibliomist.org/pdf/pres-reliz.pdf. – Назва зекрану.
AND DIDACTIC GAMES AS A MEANS OF THEIR ABILITIES
AND PRACTICAL SKILLS FORMATION
Changes in the social field, we can face nowadays in Ukraine, demand new approaches in the development of educational system, especially formation of new technologies.
Modern didactics recommend to improve traditional methods of education in order to form an individuality of a pupil. Such method must form individual practical skills of pupils. Modern method of education is a didactic game, which assists in activization of educational process and allows to show interesting and exciting borders of Mathematics. Therefore, the topicality of the research is to work out the methods of practical skills formation of Mathematics using didactic games. So it is determined by necessity of the choice of the research.
The aim of the research is to work out, analyze and verify methods using didactic games in the process of practical skills formation of Mathematics.
To achieve the aim the following tasks were set:
To understand the position of the problem in scientific, psychopedagogical literature; to realize the level of practical realization at school.
To examine psychopedagogical, didactic, methodical aspects using didactic games.
To work out and investigate the methods of using didactic games as a measure of practical skills formation of Mathematics.
To verify the efficacy of the methods.
The methods of our investigation are:
Theoretical: systemic and comparative analysis of psychopedagogical and scientific literature; analysis of program, textbooks of Mathematics; analysis and interpretation of the results of pedagogical experiment; Practical: diagnostic (conversation with pupils and teachers; questionnaire);
Diagnostic (conversations with pupils and teachers, forms); observative (observation for educational process at school, systematization of pedagogical experience); experimental (organization and construction of pedagogical experiment).
The novelty of the research lies in the working out, theoretical and experimental analyzing of the methods of using didactic games in the process of practical skills formation on Mathematics.
The practical significance of the investigation is evident, for using didactic games in the educational process assists in activization of educational and cognitive activity during practical skills formation on Mathematics; the results of pupil’s activity can be used as a didactic maintenance of educational process; the materials and conclusions of the research can be useful for teachers of schools, students and for further investigations of our topic.
The main position of the paper was checked in the period from 2009 to 2011. Experimental verification of the efficacy was made during two stages: theoretical and practical. The data of comparative investigation means some advantages of experimental methods over the traditional ones. Quantitative results of experiment approve that the higher level of scientific achievements is seen in experimental classes in comparison with the control one. It is explained by using our methods of education and proves their efficiency.
The practical usage of the methods is adjusted with age peculiarities of pupils. It allows taking into account their individual abilities, assists in improvement the quality of mathematical preparation, activization of educational process, motivation of learning Mathematics.
Коваленко В. Г. Дидактические игры на уроках математики / В. Г. Коваленко. – М. : Просвещение, 1990. – 91 с.
Тополя Л. Дидактичні ігри на уроках алгебри і геометрії. 7–9 класи / Л. Тополя, В. Швець. – К. : Шк. світ, 2009. – 128 с. – (Бібліотека “Шкільного світу”).
Health is a functional state of the human body that provides life, a rather high level of physical and mental well-being along with healthy generation reproduction.
Health depends on many influences on the human body, including climatic, social, industrial, residential, psychological factors, lifestyle and others. Leaving conditions play an important role for our health. That role refers not only in an environmentally safe location of the dwelling (distance from enterprises with harmful emissions from road traffic, etc.). Quality of building materials, exterior and interior are of the same importance. The last issue has a noteworthy impact not only on mental state of a human being (feeling of comfort and aesthetic pleasure), but also the physical parameters of the internal environment room (humidity, air purity, content of impurities in it, harmful radiation from electrical appliances, etc.). All above mentioned discovers an environmental function of plants using for decorative purpose.
Plants become an integral part of human surroundings, a few thousand years BC (the first information about creating collections of plants that have decorative properties, dating from the mid 4th century BC). The role of plants for maintain comfortable living conditions in modern houses and apartments, it is hardly possible to overestimate. In particular, plants in a dank room have a positive impact on humidity, as, for example, prefabricated buildings made of reinforced concrete, this figure is usually lower than normal, and hygrophilous plants put in special trays with water, which provides increased evaporation as with the plant itself, and the liquid surface. Many species of flora grown indoors, have bactericidal properties (emit phytoncides). Despite the fact that plants give a major source of oxygen, namely the negative ions, which dramatically lacking in each home with TV or computer. Plants successfully neutralize some toxic substances. There are many opinions about the impact of plants that grow near us, on health, mental condition, can add confidence, innervate or calm. The role of these “neighbours” particularly stressed in the ancient teachings of feng shui. Each plant may affect the people in a different way, and it can carry both benefits and harms so sometimes (allergic diseases) [1, p. 98; 3, p. 199].
Among the wide variety of species and of plants stratum Polypodiophyta plays an important role, gaining attention by its exotic form and aesthetics. Polypodiophyta contains a group of high spore plants, widespread in tropical and subtropical zones of the earth, but they are also typical representatives of temperate latitudes, especially common in forest ecotypes. Among them are mainly herbaceous forms, but not excluding lianas and woody forms [2, p. 34].
Today Polypodiophyta, are quite common indoor ornamental plants and plants of open ground. They were very popular in the 19th century, when greenhouses and glass collection boxes cultivated Polypodiophyta. However, only some Polypodiophyta grown as an ordinary house plants, because the combustion products of gas and smoke from coal which then heated room, extremely negative effect on these plants. Centralized heating again allowed recovering interest to representatives of Polypodiophyta, but not all species and varieties of it well-tolerated and dry warm air of modern homes [3, p. 125].
Among the representatives of Polypodiophyta in floriculture is Adiantum – small plants that have thin petioles and tender sheet plate. They need high humidity, warm and shaded conditions, making them grow better in a terrarium or in a shaded greenhouse. The majority – A.raddianum, A. tenerum farleyense, A. hispsdulum, A. cappilus-veneris – are undemanding to grow. Blechnum a pronounced trunk that develops in adult plants, the head can reach one meter in diameter. Widely distributed species B. gibbum, B. bra-zilience – can be found only in very large collections.
Asplenium prefers shade and moist air. In a culture grown two quite different from each other species A. nidus, xiphoid which leaves covered with scales with rhizome produces something similar to “nest” (hence named as “the fern-bird nest”). Another common type of culture in cirrus is strongly dissected sheet plate on adult leaves of buds developing young plants. Most common A. bulbiferum, smaller with curved leaves.
Nephrolepis is the most popular among the modern florists while N. cordifolia was popular in the 19 century, has a direct leaf length 35–60 cm, N. exaltata is considered to be the large one. N. exaltata bostoniensis (derived form over 100 years ago in Boston, USA), has appealing leaves. This form has gained distribution and later withdrew its many varieties, such as, for example, (rooseveltii, maassii, scottii, Fluffy Ruffles, whitmanii, smithii).
Also quite common for species growing or decorative intention are representatives of genera Pellaea, Phyllitis, Platycerium, Polystichum, Polypodium, Pteris [3, p. 246].
Thus, decorative indoor plants in general and Polypodiophyta stratum in particular, create at home or at workspace, not only aesthetic pleasure but also improve the indoors microclimate (raise humidity and deodorize air).
1. Кужницька В. Растения и их применение. История и современность / В. Кужницька, М. Жиак. – Варшава : Медицина, 1992. – 345 с.
2. Мак-Кой П. Комнатные растения: энциклопедия : пер с англ. / П. Мак-Кой. – М. : Росмен, 1998. – 420 с.
3. Хессайон Д. Г. Все о комнатных растениях / Д. Г. Хессайон. – М. : Кладезь-Букс, 2006. – 398 с.
І-CONCEPTІON AS THE OPTІMUM WAY
OUT OF CONFLІCT SІTUATІONS
The history of human development from ancient times to nowadays witnesses that conflicts have always existed and they are going to happen.
As a rule, a conflict situation is connected with psychological peculіarіtіes of an іndіvіdual, the interests and needs involved and also with the motives of an іndіvіdual activity. The basis of many conflicts is an іncapabіlіty of іndіvіdual to achieve the goal, to meet his/her demands and interests. There are many ways to resolve conflicts, but іn our opinion, “І-conception” іs a very іnterestіng way out of conflict situations.
“І-conceptіon” has proposed by the Amerіcan psychologіst Karl R. Rogers. Іt іs formed in the process of cooperation of іndіvіdual and the envіronment and іt is an integral mechanism of self-regulation of hіs/her behavіor. “І-conceptіon” defіnes a relatіvely constant, move or less conscious system of an іndіvіdual’s representatіon on the basіs of whіch he/she establіshes relatіonshіps wіth other people. Thіs conceptіon іncludes an іndіvіdual representatіon, іnterests, abіlіtіes, orіentatіons, self-respect, self-confіdence.
The practіcal content of the conceptіon іmplіes that all our relatіonshіps wіth the envіronment are establіshed on the basіs of our “І”, our “І-іmage”. The psycholologіcal mechanіsms of the “І-іmage” protectіon are put іnto іndіvіdual conscіousness. They are necessary for maіntaіnіng an іndіvіdual’s psychologіcal balance and psyhologіcal comfort. At the same tіme, these mechanіsms may complіcate the acceptance of crіtіcal reprіmands, sіnce they break the іntegrіty of a created representatіon.
Each іndіvіdual іs capable of understandіg hіs/her own “І-іmage” and psycholgіcal peculіarіtіes, and capable of defіnіng tactіcs of hіs/her behavіour іn a sіtuatіon that may cause a conflісt and not comіng іnto conflіct. And when an іndіvіdual fіnds hіmself/herself іn conflіct, theіr reactіon wіll be dіfferent: a passіve reactіon, a clash, self- establіshment. Іn order to express one’s own feelіngs, to declare one’s personal іnterests, thoughts, belіefs and not to provoke a negatіve attіtude to another person, one should use the technology “І-іmage” whіle speakіng.
The Dіctіonary of Terms of Pedagogіcal Mastersip defіnes “І-utterance” as a way of avoidіng conflіct іn a sіtuatіon, whіch lіes іn іnformіng of one’s own needs, feelings or estimation in the form which includes one’s attitudes and lacks direct disapproval, inducement and being importunate.
In our opinion, “І-utterance” іs a specіfіc technology of establіshіng relatіonshіps between іnterlocutors, whісh pasess on іnformatіon to one of them about needs, feelіngs of the other and also hіs/her opіnіon on the subject dіscussed and іs lackіng іn accusatіons.
“І-utterance” may be useful іn any sіtuatіon, especіally when you are angry, іrrіtated, іn a bad mood or not satіsfіed wіth somethіng.
The dіctіonary of terms of pedagogіcal craft gіves four components of “І-utterance”: a non-accusatory descrіptіon of another person’s behavіour (when you…); you feelіngs related to thіs behavіour (І feel ); why thіs behavіour makes trouble for you(because); a dіscrіptіon of your wіsh (and І would lіke…).
Іn our opіnіon, “І-utterance” should have three compulsory components:
Actіon (When somebody raіses hіs/her voіce…);
Reactіon(…І feel humіlіated);
Desіred ехіt (І would lіke to have an opportunіty to dіscuss thіs subject іn normal condіtіons).
Opposite to “І-utterance”, “You-utterance” іs used. Іf “You-utterance” prevaіls over “І-utterance”, іt means that the conversatіonal style has features of conflіct, as a matter of fact, “You-utterance” may result іn a conflіct іn a sіtuatіon, іn whісh іt has not even been eхpected. People consіder “You-utterance” as an accusatіon, dіsapproval and accordіngly they have to use protectіve reactіons іn relatіon to others. An іndіvіdual may feel the necessіty for vіndіcatіon іf he/she hears somebody’s opіnіon eхpressed by “You-utterance”.
The use of the technology of cooperatіon “І-utterance” has a number of advantages over usual “You-utterance”:
Eхpersіng one’s own thoughts,feelіngs,needs.
Preventіon or halt of development of a conflіct sіtuatіon.
Savіng an іnterlocutor’s face.
“І-utterance” іs not the least іn relatіonshіps, іt іs the begіnnіng of establіshіng relatіonshіps іn a conflіct sіtuatіon.
To sum up, we can say that the use of “І-utterance” has many advantages whіle usіng “You-utterance”has some dіsadvantages.
The rіght use of “І-utterance” whіle speakіng provides the creatіon of a productіve dіalgue, achіevement of a desіred result, the comfortable psychologіcal atmosphere between іnterlocutors.
The optіmum self-establіshment plays a major role for effіcіent behavіour іn a conflіct. When realіzіng the reason of the conflіct, hіs/her posіtіon іn іt, an іndіvіdual can eхpress hіs/her opіnіon, can have a heart-to-heart talk wіthout pressure of the envіronment and durіng thіs talk each sіde of the conflіct can eхpress hіs/her dіscontent. Thіs kіnd of behavіour wіll help to resolve a conflіct, be on frіendly terms wіth an opponent. After such a conflіct the partіcіpants fell morally satіsfіed and relaхed.
1. Авдулова Т. П. Влияние Я-концепции учащихся на выбор стратегии выхода из конфликтных ситуаций / Т. П. Авдулова, О. А. Гордеева // Психология обучения – 2006. – № 12. – С. 45–55.
2. Безпальча Р. Ф. Технологія попередження конфліктів / Р. Ф. Безпальча. – K. : Главник, 2007. – 128 с.
MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEM OF INTERACTIVE ANSWERS “SENTEO” IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHING AT THE POLTAVA COOPERATIVE COLLEGE
Modern society is so “informed”, that requires certain reforms in the sphere of education, expansion of subjects of information offered to the students. Gradually the personality-oriented system of teaching replaces the traditional one. Traditional methods are changed to innovative. Consequently, there is displacement of accents in teaching, when a situation is so that attaining of high-quality indexes without introduction in the educational process of modern multimedia technologies is impossible. We tried to use such technologies during studying of foreign languages at the Poltava cooperative college .
Teachers of high schools begin to use various technical means of teaching in their pedagogical activity. Among such means we can name interactive boards, so called “smart boards”, multimedia projectors and a personal computers. All these technical inventions together create the whole instructive complex. We cannot help paying attention upon a real “miracle of technique” a system of interactive answers “Senteo” which allows to simplify a process of evaluation of students’ knowledge [1–3].
Using such means of teaching gives great opportunities as improving the level of organization of teaching process, solving the problem of access to information of various forms and contents. They promote intellectual and spiritual development of all the students, their readiness to live and work in a humane and democratic society [4–5].
One of the tasks of our investigation was to find out how effective the use of modern information technologies at the lessons of foreign language is. The number of software products was created. While passing pedagogical practice, we conducted the experiment at the Poltava Cooperative College: during the study of themes “My Family”, “Sport in Our Life”, “Meals”, “Man and Environment”, “Art”, “Mass Media” in one group didactic material was given by a traditional method, in another it was done with the use of modern multimedia technologies. After our request the program tools created by the author passed approbation by the teachers of the college. When studying of the themes was over, students gave answers to the questions of the offered tests. Comparing the results of our experiment with the reviews of foreign language teachers, we can confirm, that in those groups, where presentation of material was held with the use of computer technologies such as Smart Board and “Senteo” system high-quality indexes appeared far better on 12 %.
As the experiment showed that wide introduction of the multimedia technologies in the educational process based on computer technique allows considerably multiplying productivity and efficiency of activity of both teachers and students.
Thus, the use of modern multimedia technologies in the educational process enables to enrich a curriculum by creation of computer presentations, tests contained complete information on the studied themes at the college. Work of students with the computer programs makes it possible to get profound knowledge, oriented on the search and acquisition of a new experience, cognition of computer and application of studied information in everyday life.
1. ГорбачоваК. В. Використання матеріалів телекомунікаційних проектів на уроках англійської мови та в позакласній роботі / К. В. Горбачова // Англійська мова та література. – 2004. – № 9. – С. 2–4.
2. Капітонов П. В. Використання нових інформаційних технологій у середній школі в процесі навчання / П. В. Капітонов // Англійська мова та література. – 2005. – № 31. – С. 4–6.
3. Корсакова М. Комп’ютерні технології у навчальному процесі / М. Корсакова // English. – 2006. – № 34. – С. 2–3.
4. Мілютіна З. Т. Інноваційні технології викладання англійської мови в школі / З. Т. Мілютіна // Управління школою : наук.-метод. журнал. – 2006. – № 19–21. – С. 47–51.
5. Романенко Я. В. Використання мультимедійних технологій у вивченні англійської мови / Я. В. Романенко // Комп’ютер у школі та сім’ї. – 2004. – № 2. – С. 41–43.
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGICAL CONFLICTS
There is a number of views on the essence of a conflict, its necessity, significance in people’s lives, and in the life of a pedagogical collective in particular. We cannot omit the fact that based on the notion “conflict” a separate branch of science – conflictology – appeared which is a proof of increasing social and scientific significance of conflict problem in all spheres of life.
In modern education, the main accent is set on the humanistic orientation of the pedagogical process. It particularly includes the treatment to a pupil not as an object of teaching and upbringing but as a subject of communication, and it requires the development of pupils’ independence, self-organization and the ability to enter into dialogue with another person. In educational practice, the presence of a strong contradiction inhibits the resolution of these problems: at one pole – humanistic principles, at the other one – technological nature of its realization. At a traditional school pupils and teachers’ statuses, functions, aims and ages are opposed each other. A pupil who is constantly in the process of communication with a teacher represents an object of pedagogical influence. Quite often one can observe the absence of understanding in interactions of a pupil and a pedagogue, who leads to conflicts.
Conflicts have become one of the most complicated problems in the life of modern school. Pupils interacting with adults, peers, socio-cultural environment quite often encounter conflicts on different levels and under different circumstances. The number of conflicts in the system “teacher–pupil” is constantly growing. The lack of positive relationships between a teacher and pupils is perceived almost as a norm and the emotional and spiritual distance is increasing between them. On the contrary, mutual interest towards each other is falling and pupils’ motivation to study is decreasing. Unconstructive behaviour of the parties in a conflict situation leads to turning business conflicts into emotional ones, which cause negative consequences such as increase of emotional tension and anxiety level. Lasting unsolved conflicts have a negative influence on interpersonal relationships and socio-psychological climate in a school collective. The absence of due attention to conflict problem at school significantly increases the risk of conflicts in educational environment which becomes the basis for developing a conflict orientation of a personality and an obstacle on the way of a person’s self-fulfillment process.
Productive attempts to resolve above-mentioned contradiction consist in actual recognition of a pupil as a subject of educational interactions that requires searching the place of a very person’s actions, formation of a pupil’s subjective and initiative attitude to education, development of his/her competences and skills of constructive communication with surroundings and learning the norms and rules of non-conflict interaction with other people. Such scientifically verified search needs rethinking of the approaches to pedagogical conflict as a phenomenon of actual educational reality [4, p. 17].
As the analysis of psychological and pedagogical sources proves the interest in domestic pedagogics to contradictions in the process of education of children and their behaviour which deviates at preschool age began to form already in the 20-30-ies of the last century and found place in a number of works by L. Vyhotsky, O. Zaluzhny and others. General issues of a difficult childhood were researched in these works without focusing attention on conflict issues.
There is not a solitary definition of a conflict. There are its different explanations in terms of various scientific theories. At present the most common definition is the following one: conflict is a collision and confrontation of opposite psychological factors in the interactions among personalities, groups or inside a personality, which generated by significant to them contradictions [1, p. 129].
The following most essential properties are discriminated in conflictology: existence of contradictions, or at least divergence of interests, values, aims, motives, roles of subjects; opposition and confrontation of conflict subjects, desire to damage your opponent morally, physically or psychologically, to traumatize his/her “ego”; negative emotions and feelings towards each other as background characteristics of conflict interactions.
Objective and subjective factors of pedagogical conflicts are distinguished. Specific content of objective factors are determined by the specificity of the very situation in which they arise. Subjective conditions play the role of factors, which turn a possible potential conflict into a real one. People’s situational psychological states, special individual characteristics and qualities of a personality, their attitudes, relationship positions and subjective perception a situation being conflict belong to the latter factors.
Conflicts having double nature perform a negative function as well as positive one, although at first glance a conflict is perceived as a negative phenomenon connected with dissatisfaction, impatience, social tension. Gnerally speaking, a conflict can cause such such social and psychological changes and transformations which lead either to a more complete and profound adaptation of a person and social community to new conditions or to conflict interaction subjects’ degradation and collapse. Characterizing conflict and its consequences in the terms of systematic approach which includes the ambivalence (dualism) principle in perception and evaluation one and the same processes it is necessary to emphasize that it is never clearly negative or positive. Evaluation of conflict results is possible only after a certain period of time sometimes quite lasting has finished.
Pedagogical conflict situation is determined as a short interaction of a teacher with a pupil or a class collective on the basis of opposite norms, values and interests which is accompanied by significant emotional displays and aimed at a rearrangement of formed relationships (in a better or worse side) [3, p. 36].
As a teacher organizes the interaction with pupils through solving pedagogical situations, first of all, it is necessary to know and analise the features of pedagogical situations and the conditions of their transition into conflict ones.
Responding to a child’s behaviour properly the teacher take the situation under his/her control and sets the order. The haste at evaluating pupils’ deeds often leeds to mistakes and causes their indignation over teacher’s injustice, and then a complicated padagogical situation can escalate into conflict. There is no clear line between a complicated pedagogical situation and a coflict in teaching because pupils not always can openly declare their positions, defend their right.
Pedagogical conflicts are characterized by the following psychological features: teacher’s professional responsibility for pedagogically proper resolution of a situation; conflict parties have different social status; different understanding of events and their causes by the parties; other pupils’ presence of conflict convert them from witnesses to participants, and the conflict acquires the educational value for them too; teacher’s professional position in a conflict requires him to take the initiative on himself/herself while resolving the conflict and to be able to put pupil’s interests as a forming personality into the first place; any teacher’s mistake at resolving a conflict generates new situations and conflicts into which other students are also included; pedagogical conflict is easier to anticipate and prevent than to resolve.
Two general ways of conflict resolution are singled out – constructive and destructive. The constructive one is understood as a person’s choice of optimal algorithm with a minimum damage to himself/herself and the opposite party within moral and legal norms accepted in the society (he/she either reaches desirable goal, or abandons it, or accepts a compromise solution). Under destructive way of conflict resolution a conflict extrusion or pseudoresolution is understood and also a conflict resolution with the help of actions related to oneself and others which are unacceptable from the point of view of moral and legal social norms .