Тези доповідей ІV студентських читань



Сторінка4/13
Дата конвертації29.12.2016
Розмір1.6 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   13

REFLECTIONS ON YOUTH SUB-CULTURES

Youth culture and youth subcultures have been a subject of research since the early 1930s of the previous century. It is most certainly true today that there is not one singular youth culture but a variety of different youth subcultures. The 90’s can not be described as the same as the 60’s or 70’s or even the 80’s, etc.There are many reasons put forward by sociologists for this such as there are more styles available today, media influences us more and there is a higher disposable income per household to spend on fashions. We shall try to explore in the given article the reasons behind the existence of youth cultures in previous years and why the same format has not occured at the end of the XX – the beginning of the XXI centuries.

Defining “youth” can be difficult and is described in the Concise Oxford Dictionary as: “the state of being young, the period between childhood and adult age”. This would indicate that youth is described as an age group and people can be distinguished by the different age groups. However, it could be questioned that not all children stop being children at the same time. Sometimes youth is described as “not simply an age group, but the social organization of an age group” Sociologists of youth, according to such understanding, describe youth culture as “the way of life shared by young people”.

Subculture, as defined in the Concise Oxford Dictionary, is a “cultural group within a larger culture often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture”. This would imply that a subculture is a subdivision of a national culture; it exists between the parameters of certain cultures.

Empirical observation carried out by sociologists find that youth sub-cultures have a distinct individual style. They have certain ways of dressing (i.e. shoes, clothing and hairstyles),speaking (i.e. slang), listening to music and gathering in similar places i.e. bikers at race meetings and bars and ravers at dance clubs or outdoor raves. It is then assumed that shared activities reflect shared values.

To concentrate on the bikers of the 60’s seems fitting. This was one large youth culture and still exists as a smaller section of society. It could be said that not all bikers today share the same values and enjoy the same activities as do the 60s style of bikers. This could be because members of the subculture break away from a particular group or never ‘join’ in the first place. Age could have implications here; the transition from youth to adult may determine how long a member stays in one particular subculture. Although there are variants of bike-boys they were broadly from a working class background and were seen as outsiders and loners linked by the love of motor-bikes and heavy rock music. Their style was masculine and their appearance was aggressive. The motor-cycle gear looked tough with its leather studs, denim and heavy leather boots. Hair was worn long in a greasy swept-back style and many were tattooed on the hands, arms and chest. A typical evening for the bike boys would consist of permutations of the same activities: a drink and a game of darts in their local pub, a game of pinball and a coffee in the coffee bar and general horseplay and chatter in a club.



An ethnographic study of a group of bikers during the 70s describes the group as being almost all male and from typical working class backgrounds. However, it could be argued that today’s bikers come from a variety of class and professional backgrounds from bricklayers to bankers. In Britain, the general fears about young people and youth subcultures have been focused on working class youth styles. However different youth groups are from each other, i.e. bikers as opposed to the more “recent” ravers, they appear to outrage “straight” society and are often labelled deviant or delinquent. Youth has been seen as a “social problem” for at least one hundred years.

Although bikers, as a subculture, still exist today, it would appear that changes have been made as to the composition of members within the subculture; their values, beliefs and shared activities. The “ravers” from the eighties are a good example of another post-war youth culture. During the late 80s, young people with bandannas, brightly coloured clothes and a crazed look in their eyes were being presented as the next youth subculture. For the ravers (also known as clubbers) the shared experience is attending a rave and possibly taking ecstasy which has become synonymous with the rave culture. This is often the only thing ravers have in common with each other unlike other subcultures. These parties, where extensive use of strobe lighting and psychedelic imagery was used, were attended by young males and females stereotypically dressed in baggy oversized T-shirts, track suits and baggy jeans. The clothes were comfortable, brightly coloured and cheap. The intensive dancing to fast beating music, along with the use of hypnotic drugs, went hand-in-hand. This style of clothing suited excessive body movement, however, this fashion style began to change. With interest coming from the fashion industry, the style began to change and evolve. Baggy clothes for girls were replaced by tight body-hugging outfits made of materials such as lycra emphasising appearance rather than comfort and practicality. It is difficult to define the common experiences that lead people to go to raves. It could be that many youths wanted a form of “escapism” to get away from the norms of every day life or problems like unemployment. Most ravers only attend raves or clubs at the weekend; it could be argued that rave is more a leisure pursuit as opposed to a subculture. Ravers appear to cut across all social divisions, classes, gender and age. Unlike the 60s bikers, ravers are not exclusive to the working class, the unemployed or dominated by male members. It is difficult to make analogies between the common experiences of an eighteen year old student and a thirty year old computer analyst both attending raves on a Saturday night. The age of spectacular subcultures are gone for good. This is because there are so many style and taste cultures which offer young people different ways of expressing their identity. There is too much diversity for any single youth subculture to dominate society. The growth of capitalist culture and leisure industries has meant that all young people now have access to the cultural resources they need to engage in “symbolic creativity” in their leisure time. Basically, youth culture has become complicated. There are so many different theories now that they could easily come into doubt. It would seem that, when comparing the two different subcultures, that patterns and common beliefs differ and have changed over the last 20 years. Bikers had a tighter sense of belonging to their subculture than the more recent ravers. Society appears to be so complex now; there seems to be a wider social system with changes in class, occupational structure, neighborhood structure and family and leisure patterns. Today’s youth subcultures point to an interweaving of style with gender, class and age which follows a more contemporary outlook as opposed to some of the classic theories. Under post-modern conditions, identities appear to be in a constant state of change: individuals move freely from one sub-cultural group and enthusiasm to another; they mix and match what were formerly distinct categories like the 60s bikers. Style, enjoyment, excitement, escape from boredom at work or play, being attractive to ones self have now become central life concerns.

Media also plays a great part in the prevention of a new youth culture forming. Nowadays young people have access to the “back catalogue” of previous forms of music and subcultural styles through television stations and magazines. Subcultural dress now becomes a matter of surface style. Furthermore, during the 1980s, market researchers began to change ways in which they saw the various groups of consumers. This change in the way in which consumption patterns are perceived by market researchers from being seen as influenced by socio-economic class to being seen as influenced by life-cycle stages.

It is also worth noting that in recent years the subcultures that have occured have been seen to be deviant such as the skinheads, ravers, football 'hooligans' and punks. Two different, yet similar, deviant groups can be used to describe the entire deviant subculture. Those who classify themselves as punks and anarchists are one type and those that spout “free love” and peace (hippies) are another type of deviant subculture. The first group chooses to be social outcasts because of a hatred of norms. This group attempts to destroy society and with it the means for bettering it. They believe in a type of anarchy that stems from loathing toward excepted values and refuse to get jobs or even conform to society in the most basic ways. Hippies on the other hand choose a method of peace and tranquility, believing that people should all love one another and anarchy would be beautiful if everyone could simply understand how to live at peace with themselves and nature.

All hope of meaningful cultural activity is denied; young people face a future in which any genuine radicalism is quickly incorporated into the commercial marketing system and used to sell more commodities. Although there are a number of subcultures left in today's society such as “surfies”, “townies” and people who follow the grunge movement, there is no singular youth culture left.


Анна Зелененко

ДО ПИТАННЯ ПРО КОМП’ЮТЕРННИЙ СЛЕНГ

Одним з актуальних питань сьогодення навколо якого розгортається наукова полеміка представників лінгвістичної науки є питання про вплив Інтернету на мову, позаяк реакція на, вживані представниками певних прошарків населення, дивакуваті слова, як “бе-ем-пешка”, “сервак”, “даунлоад” , тощо сприймаються неоднозначно. Природно, що з розвитком технологій, з`являються нові лексичні одиниці, які спочатку потрапляють до розряду сленгових. Тому спроба дослідити певні аспекти комп’ютерного сленгу видається нам особливо важливою.

Сленг – експресивно і емоційно забарвлена лексика розмовної мови, що відхиляється від загальноприйнятої мовної норми. [2, с. 558].

Комп’ютерний сленг виник у 1946 році одночасно з появою ЕОМ (електронно-обчислювальна машина), С. Пиркало зазначає, що “ комп’ютерні слегнізми – дуже широкий, але малодосліджений шар лексики, що твориться переважно на англомовній основі”[1, с. 5]. Тоді вже вийшов “Перший словник українського молодіжного сленгу”, хоча комп’ютерну лексику ще не виділяли в окрему категорію. Тепер же вона набула неабиякої популярності і стала різновидом особливої мови, нею користуються не лише програмісти та інженери-комп’ютерники, а й прості користувачі, переважно молодь та діти, які при вживанні останніх мають свої мотиви: справити враження, бути дотепним, сучасним, уникнути вже набридлих, звичайних слів.

Спробуймо з’ясувати джерела комп’ютерного сленгу. Найрозповсюдженіший спосіб – трансформація або скорочення певного, переважно великого за обсягом, чи важковимовного терміна. Наприклад: клава – клавіатура, гіг – гігабайт, комп – комп’ютер, компачкомпакт-диск, моня(морда) – монітор комп’ютера, мать – материнська плата, прога – програма, тощо.

Не менш популярним є запозичення, переважно з англійської мови, при чому багато слів є асимільованими (звуки читаються і вимовляються рідною мовою), деякою мірою - українізація. Це пов’язано з молодіжною модою на англійську мову. Найбільш виразні приклади: хом’як – домашня сторінка (від англ. home page), голий дід – редактор Gold Edit, аська – програма ISQ (I seek you – я шукаю тебе), батон – клавіша (з англ. button), (натискати клавіші – топтати батони), З.І. – Post Scriptum (літери З.І. розташовуються там же, де і англійські літери P.S.), ЛОЛ – голосний сміх (laughing out long), маздай – те що треба видалити (must die – повинно вмерти).

Деякі слова узяті з інших професійних груп: мокрушник – програміст, що використовує мову програмування “макроассемблер”, запозичений з кримінального арго, де “мок рушник” означає “вбивця”, білка(білочка) – безпідставне перезавантаження комп’ю­тера, реаніматор – фахівець з ремонту комп’ютерів, СНІД -– комп’ютерний вірус (з медичної термінології).

Сленгнізми, утворені афіксальним способом, переважно застосовуються для позначення жанру гри: бродилка, стріляла, літалка і таке інше.

Існують не менш цікаві за оригінальністю фразеологічні звороти: трипальцевий салют або ж узяти акорд – перезавантаження комп’ютера одночасним натисканням клавіш Ctrl–Alt–Del. Але зрештою комп’ютерний сленг змінюється так само швико, як і оновлюється техніка, дослідження вказують, що “ швидкість зміни лексичного складу комп’ютерного сленгу є більшою ніж в інших професіях та групових жаргонах. За результатами опитування, близько 10% слів, відомих користувачам зі стажем 8–10 років, невідомі тим, хто працює з комп’ютером 1–3 роки” [3, с. 34]. Так, безслідно зникли такі слова: екстішка, двушка (двійка), трьошка (трійка), четвірка, пень (пеньок, пеньок сотка) – все це застарілі види комп’ютерів. Ці слова є вже історизмами (позначуваного поняття не існує).

Багато слів з комп’ютерного жаргону переходять до офіційної термінологіїї, на них можна натрапити в солідних наукових виданнях та в пресі.

Отже, так само, як і сучасні комп’ютерні технології, комп’ютерний сленг є невід’ємною частиною сьогодення,а відтак потребує подальших детальних і всебічних наукових розвідок.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА



  1. Сленг // Велика радянська енциклопедія / [Ред.-упоряд. О. Прохо­ров]. – 1976, т. 23. – 558 с.

  2. Пиркало С. Походженя сучасного українського молодіжного сленгу / С. Пиркало // Українська мова та література. – 1998. – № 25. – С. 4–5.

  3. Шевер Н. Комп’ютерний сленг: ненормативно, але нормально / Шевель Н. // Секретар-референт. – 2008. – №8. – С. 31 – 35.


Ігор Ісіченко

THE CYRIL-METHODIUS PARADIGMS

OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION OF UKRAINIAN CULTURE

The metaphor “on the ember of two worlds” indicates the place of Ukraine not only on the border between Greek East and Latin West, but also on the place for the country on the border of Europe and Asia; on the borderline between democracy and totalitarianism. Without taking this factor to consideration, it is hardly possible to understand the strange collisions within the political life in post-Soviet Ukraine.

According to the hypothetical influence of Cyril and Methodius, as historical personalities for the creation of Rus’ Church to the actual display of their presence in our church life, in our church culture, we should perceive the following areas:


  • the first one is the Cult of Cyril and Methodius, which from the very beginning has become a fundamental element of Rus’ hagiography and popular devotion;

  • the second one is the use of the Cyrillic alphabet and the church-Slavonic language;

  • the third one is the function of memorials, translated by Cyril and Methodius or an immediate circle of their disciples;

  • the fourths one acquires ideological interpretation depending on the type of culture and societal demаnds.

The Church-Slavonic language and Cyril’s alphabet become very important signs of the presence of Ukrainians in the cultural arena. The Lviv circle of Romantics that was called contemporary “The Rus’ Trinity” took an active role in polemics concerning the perspective of crossing of the Ukrainian language into Latin Graphics. The leader of “The Rus’ Trinity” Markiyan Shashkevych wrote an article “Azbuka and Abecadlo” (1836), actively contradicting the purpose of accepying the latin writing based on the example of the Western Slavic language (Varfolomey Kopitar, Pavlo Joseph Shafaryk, Ihnatiy Berlych, etc.), paying attention to the superiority of the Cyrillic language over the Latin alphabet.

In the middle of 1840 in the capital of Ukraine the city of Kyiv appeared the first societal-political ordanisation, which took for itself the heavenly patrons of the Saints Cyril and Methodius – the Brotherhood of Cyril and Methodius. The chief ideologist of the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood Mykola Kostomarov proclaimed the main program of the organization, that inspired by the known literary work of Adam Mitskewych – “The Book of Existence of the Ukrainian Nation”. The legacy of Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood became the issue of the messianic interpretation of the Ukrainian perspective in reintegration of “Slavic Civilization”. The saints Cyril and Methodius, according to M. Kostomarov, fulfilled the translation of the Holy Scripture by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, safeguarding Slavs superiority over the Western European nations: the Slavs began to understand Divine Liturgy, inaccessible to Germans and Roman nations: “And the Slavs accepted the Christian faith very fast that no nation received in this way”.

It is by the exclusive nature appropriated by the Slavs of the Christian truth that the severity of Providence is being explained: “Because the Lord Himself said: who was given more, more will be asked”. The consequences of painful challenges, from among will be the loss of freedom, will be in the future unification into a Federal republic that acquires the ideology of M. Kostomarov the Trinian nature. The key role in this alliance was played by the Ukraine, as the one bestowed with the most experience of foreign oppression: “Then all the nation will say, showing by hand at the city, where on the map will be painted Ukraine: “It is the stone that will not be taken, this will be the foundation”.

Paradoxically, the Romantic messianism of the Ukrainian thinkers of the 19th century returns to legacy of Saint Cyril and Methodius in order to reveal its own prestigious place in the future of Europe, that would be suitable to its character and that would safeguard the harmony of life with the other nations. The Greek missionaries that led their mission on the blessing of Roman Pontificate in his model became the creators and defenders of the Slavic identity. The new nationalism of Ukraine becomes a forceful fighter “on the border of two worlds” – between East and West.


Вікторія Канівець

ПІДГОТОВКА ВЧИТЕЛІВ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ

В КАНАДІ

В Канаді є три основні програми підготовки вчителів. Однією з них є програма TESL Diploma. Це інтенсивна програма тренування вчителів для людей, що розмовляють англійською мовою, які зацікавлені у викладанні ESL в Канаді чи закордоном. Навчальний план програми визнаний організацією TESL Canada, і диплом є обов’язковою умовою для викладання в Канаді та інших країнах. Цей викладацький сертифікат також є умовою для всіх національних асоціацій в Канаді, включаючи CAPLS і CLC. Програма створена для того, щоб швидко і ефективно навчити майбутніх вчителів навичкам, необхідним для підготовки та проведення занять з англійської мови на будь-якому рівні та під впливом різних умов.

Істотною частиною даної програми є викладання ESL занять іноземним студентам. Ця практична частина розпочинається після першого тижня навчання, що дає можливість привести в практику ті навички, які студенти вивчив у класі. Тривалість програми: 6 тижнів. Вартість: 6 тижнів – 1575 CAD. Другою програмою є TESOL. Ця програма була створена з аналогічним навчальним планом як і програма TESL. Однак, ця програма включає в себе час, присвячене вивченню деяких основ англійської мови, необхідних для успішного викладача цієї мови.

Програма також має дуже суворий навчальний план, та вимагає, щоб студент проводив більшу частину свого вільного часу над домашніми завданнями. Програма призначена для людей, для яких англійська мова є рідною, але які не мають університетського ступеня, а також для людей, для яких англійська не є рідною мовою, але які хотіли б викладати її в своїй країні.

Тривалість програми: 8 тижнів. Вартість: 8 тижнів – 2000 CAD. Третьою програмою є 5-годинні семінари TESL. Вони є ідеальними для викладачів ESL, які хочуть покращити свої навички та потенціал у цій змагальної індустрії. В Канаді ці семінари проводяться на професійному рівні. Вони проводяться професійними тренерами-викладачами, які мають великий досвід викладання в індустрії ESL, у вечірній час і на вихідних.

Назви деяких семінарів: Навчання наступного покоління, Тест TOEFL, Навчання граматиці, Навчання бізнес англійської, Розвиток навчального плану. Вартість: 1 семінар – 150 CAD, 5 семінарів – 650 CAD.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. About Canadian Association of Training Teacher. – [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http: //study in Сanada.com.ua. – Загол. з екрану.


Марина Кеян

SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF CONFLICTS IN ACADEMIC GROUPS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

The topicality of conflict studying in academic groups of university students is caused by the the peculiarities of the interpersonal interaction and new personal and social tasks determining the necessity of improvement of communicative skills acquired at the previous age stages. Socialization of the major part of juveniles is connected with learning and professional activities, with mastering of new subjects essential for the further professional formation of a personality. Another important influencing factor is the microenvironment. The student group really influences the development of the personality of the future specialist and creates the psychological microclimate that influences the formation of the future professional position.

The problem of the investigation of social and psychological factors of outbreaks of conflicts in the student group is still insufficiently investigated. In particular, the following issues are being researched: the nature of interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts, the student ideas concerning peculiarities of interpersonal conflicts, the features of the frictionless communication among students, conflict situations during the joint learning activity, varieties of real conflicts in academic groups of students, the formation of the conflictological competence of students (W. Basova, T. Belyayeva, A. Buznik, L. Dolynska, H. Dubchak, A. Zemba, I. Koval’, I. Kon, W. Las’kova, N. Makarchuk, I. Serednytska, A. Shkil’ and others).

The interest in the problem of the conflict interaction in the university student group is determined by the special role of the communication of students in the process of the personal professionalization. L. Marisova [4, p. 17] notes that the main activity of students is learning and the preparation for the future professional activity should be the significant. As a result, an academic group should be the most considerable as the group subject of the professional and general training.

The process of socialization is accompanied by conflicts, the danger of which lies in causing sharp negative emotions and taking their toll on the learning activity of the student. As a rule, two kinds of determinants cause conflicts in the process of cooperation: objective and business discords and divergences in personal and pragmatic interests. Conflicts emerge both among students or students and teachers [1–2; 5–6]. I. Serednytska [7, p. 105] states that student–student conflicts have the following causes: lack of appraisals and self-appraisals; divergences in value orientations; the inner personal discord; tactlessness in the communication; the envy on the others people success. I. Koval’ ascertained that the general readiness of the students, their status, the level of group homogeneity according to the learning efficiency and the way of the evaluation of the group’s activity influence greatly the course of the conflict as well as the ways of its resolution [3, p. 16].

The main conditions of the successful prevention and resolution of interpersonal conflicts are the improvement of the level of the personal communicative culture, mastering of the ways of constructive behaviour in conflict situations, the self-actualization of the student’s personality. According to the works of T. Belyayeva [1] and L. Matyash-Zayats [5] the reduction of the proneness to conflict is achievable only by providing the formation of the conflictological competence of students.

The conflictological competence is the personal ability of a person to find different ways of behaviour in a conflict by intuition or based on the previous experience, their interests, behaviour and status of the partner, and other circumstances.

The conflictological competence is the result of a special focused training and a component of professional training. It is formed both theoretically through the traditional course of lections in Conflictology or Conflict Psychology, and practically through different active forms: trainings, tutorials, games, etc.

Hence, formation of the conflictological competence of students requires mastering the following knowledge system: the patterns of mutual realization in the process of communication, the interpersonal conflicts, the ability of adequate expression of emotions and feelings, skills of efficient communication, formation of flexibility in the interpersonal interaction, the ability of efficient resolving of the interpersonal conflicts, broadening of the self-awareness, which all can be achieved with the help of active instructional methods.

REFERENCES



  1. Беляева Т. Б. Активные методы формирования конфликтологической компетентности у студентов / Т. Б. Беляева // Психология обучения. – 2008. – № 7. – С. 34–49.

  2. Винославська О. В. Психологічні особливості студентської групи / О. В. Винославська // Практична психологія і соціальна робота. – 2005. – № 7. – С. 65–70.

  3. Коваль І. А. Психологічні особливості конфліктів у процесі спільної учбової діяльності студентів : автореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня канд. психол. наук: спец. 19.00.07 – педагогічна та вікова психологія / І. А. Коваль. – К., 2003. – 20 с.

  4. Марисова Л. И. Студенческий коллектив: основы формирования и деятельности / Людмила И. М. ; oтв. ред. Б. И. Королёв. – К. : Вища школа, 1985. – 52 с.

  5. Матяш-Заяц Л. П. Соціально-психологічні чинники виникнення міжособистісних конфліктів у ранньому юнацькому віці : автореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня канд. психол. наук : спец. 19.00.07 – педагогічна та вікова психологія / Л. Матяш-Заяц. – К., 2005. – 21 с.

  6. Орбан-Лембрик Л. Е. Соціальна психологія : підручник : У 2 кн. Кн. 1: Соціальна психологія особистості і спілкування / Л. Е. Орбан-Лембрик. – К. : Либідь, 2004. – 576 с.

  7. Середницька І. Проблема міжособистісних конфліктів у студентському середовищі / Ірина Середницька // Педагогіка і психологія професійної освіти. – 2004. – № 2. – С. 103–111.


Богдан Клименко
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   13


База даних захищена авторським правом ©lecture.in.ua 2016
звернутися до адміністрації

    Головна сторінка