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3. What We Do [Електронний ресурс].Режим доступу : 4.2011: http://www.aasw.asn.au/whatwedo – Загол. з екрану.



Неля Даллакян

THE ESSENCE OF ORNAMENT’S SIGN SYSTEM

IN THE WORLD ARTISTIC CULTURE

Decorative pattern is considered to be one of the most ancient types of graphic activity of a man, that in the remote past carried in itself symbolic and magic sense and semantic function. A decorative pattern is a pattern, built by the rhythmic reiteration of one or some nongraphic or artistically generalized graphic figure-motifs.

One of the complicated problems in study of decorative pattern there is its decoding and dating of primary origin, and also belonging to this or that ethnicity. It seems to be natural, that next generations of artists utilize previous art and create the variations on its basis [3, p. 13].

Historically ornamental or symbolic art creativity developed in two directions. One direction determined the position of decorative pattern in an art what is expressly enough shown in formulation of decorative pattern: “Artistic decoration, pattern which is characterized by the rhythmic location of geometric or graphic elements and connected with the decorated object by specific graphic and architectonic bonds”. The second direction in development of decorative pattern resulted in the origin of the written language. On the certain stage of development of ornamental creation both these directions presented the unique unit [1, p. 98]. A decorative pattern, being decor, simultaneously executed a communicative function. It was and remains one of methods of code, storage and transmitting information. A sign is a social phenomenon. Joint labour activity conduced to the necessity of intercourse and exchange information which was needed for providing of vital functions of community. Ornamental sign creation made basis of tribe’s social memory [1, p.100].

In description of ornamental compositions, either ceramics or decorations from metal, it is possible to select a few basic concepts. The element of decorative pattern or module is thought to be the basis of all difficult ornamental compositions. The module system is based on the successive counting out and varying of separate and indivisible unit of pattern – module. An element-module is the simplest unit of decorative pattern. Combination of two and more elements leads to foundation of the figures of decorative pattern. One of the simplest “figures” is a corner, cross, that consists of two elements. The rhythmic reiteration of figures creates reason of decorative pattern. So the rhythmic reiteration of corner “figure” forms reason of “fir-tree” or zigzag with a vertical or horizontal orientation. The reiteration of “figure” of crossbuck forms the chainlet of rhombuses or “rhombic net”. Ornamental motif, limited above and below by horizontal lines, can be fixed as a ornamental area, where horizontal lines play the role of delimiters of areas. Ornamental composition, on the whole, can consist both of one and of some areas of decorative pattern [5, p. 78].

With formation of figure in the decorative pattern its decorative function stops to be the unique, and a decorative pattern acquires a semantic function. The figures of decorative pattern approach such concept as a sign and character. As it was already marked above, denotation of object with the purpose of its selection from the group of objects is characteristic for a sign. Meaning most characteristic in the object, a sign-character encodes information about the object, rolling it up to the minimum. Thus, there is possibility of acquisition of complete information by decoding of sign-character [2]. The analysis of semantic function of decorative pattern allows differentiating some of its basic constituents. At first, it is the reconstitution of signs and forms noted in nature (imitation beginning). Secondly, it is generalization of order and course of events (rhythmic basis) examination. And, thirdly, abstracting and ideographical basis is the awareness of important laws which manage nature and life of human societies [4].

Consequently, a decorative pattern was and remains one of methods of code, storage and information transfer. The base of all difficult ornamental compositions is the element of decorative pattern or module. An element-module is the simplest unit of decorative pattern. Per se, it is a sign and it carries the semantic load which has the archetype fundamentals.

REFERENCES



  1. Буткевич Л. М. Історія орнаменту : навч. посіб. для студ. вузів / Л. М. Буткевич. – М. : ВЛАДОС, 2009. – 268 с.

  2. Ворончихін Н. С. Орнамент. Стилі. Мотиви. / Н. С. Ворончихін, Н. А. Євшанова [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.bibliotekar.ru/ornamenty.

  3. Герчук Ю. Я. Що таке орнамент? Структура і смисл орнаментального образу : підручник / Ю. Я. Герчук. М. : Галарт, 1958. – 326 с.

  4. Левчук Л. Т. Історія світової культури / Л. Т. Левчук [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://pidruchniki. om.ua/kulturologiya.

  5. Фокіна Л. В. Орнамент : навч. посіб. / Л. В. Фокіна. – Ростов-на-Дону : Фенікс, 2006. – 173 с.


Лілія Демчик,

Юлія Солодовник

ПРО ДЕЯКІ ПРИЧИНИ ПОЯВИ АНГЛІЦИЗМІВ В УКРАЇНСЬКІЙ МОВІ

Употужнення інтернаціональних зв’язків та мовних контактів між країнами, культурами, носіями мов – одна з ознак сьогодення. Яскравим прикладом спричинених цим узаємовпливів слугує запозичення слів.

Питома вага іншомовних запозичень у лексичній системі кожної мови, на думку науковців, безперервно зростає (Б. Ажнюк, Л. Архипенко, Т. Максименко, Н. Попова, В. Сімонок та інші), насичуючи й урізноманітнюючи словниковий склад. Проблемам запозичення як явища присвячено чимало праць вітчизняних і зарубіжних дослідників (О. Муромцева, О. Поно­марів, О. Стишов, В. Чабаненко, Б. Ажнюк, О. Ахманова, В. Виноградов, Л. Крисін, О. Дьяков та ін.). В україністиці розроблялися питання теорії запозичення, проблеми запозичення на різних етапах розвитку української мови (В. Коломієць, О. Муромцева, І. Фаріон, Л. Архипенко та ін.). Вивчення запозичень-англіцизмів, що активізувалося в українському мовознавстві в останнє десятиліття, насапперед торкнулося виявлення тематичних груп досліджуваної лексики, головно термінологічної (О. Стишов, С. Руденко, Г. Сергєєва, Н.Стефанова, Н. Попова, й інші).

Історично впровадження запозичень стимулювали різні причини: потреба в найменуванні нових реалій життя, потреби науки, моди, художньої літератури та публіцистики. У різні епохи та періоди поборниками запозичень були ті чи інші соціальні групи, як-от: політики, дипломати, учені, письменники, журналісти, актори, дизайнери.

Чимало англіцизмів проникли в українську мову і через російську, зокрема в епоху Петра I у зв’язку з формуванням морського флоту та появою перших російських послів в Англії. Зміни в економічному й політичному житті України протягом 90-их рр. XX ст., залучення її до міжнародних суспільних процесів, новітніх технологій тощо призвели до значного збільшення масиву запозичених слів.

Англіцизми (англізми) – елементи різних рівнів структури мови, запозичені з англійської мови, почали новітній “наступ” на українську мову, саме з 90-их рр. ХХ ст. Інтенсивне проникнення в усі слов’янські мови одиниць англійського походження слушно вважають одним із найпомітніших мовних явищ останнього двадцятиліття, що торкнулося як усного, так і писемного мовлення на більшості рівнів мовної ієрархії [1, с. 190]. З огляду на це зауважимо, що що кінець XX ст. позначився справжнім “англобумом”, ставлення до якого різне: науковці висловлюють розбіжні оцінки: від захоплення до стурбованості чи гострої критики невиправданого насичення мови чужою лексикою, що межує з її засміченням. “Багатство і неповторність внутрішньої форми англійської мови, використання її як мови міжнародної /міжкультурної комунікації, її здатність виразити будь-яку ідею чи поняття, її пріоритетність у вираженні концептосфери людської діяльності зумовлена авангардною роллю англомовних країн (особливо США) як носіїв науково-технічного прогресу, підтверджують унікальний статус англійської мови. Її нерідко вважають мовою lingua franca, а фактично вона виступає єдиним джерелом поповнення словникового складу майже всіх мов світу” [4, с. 100].

Поділяємо думку Б. Ажнюка, який зазначає, що поява запозичень у мові, з-поміж іншого, покликана до життя: 1) потребою в найменуванні нових об’єктів, явищ, реалій; 2) потребою в розмежуванні близьких, проте нетотожних понять; 3) потребою в спеціалізації професійних понять; 4) дією соціально-психо­логічних причин: сприйняттям іншомовного слова як престижнішого, сучаснішого; 5) дією принципу мовної економії, що виявляється в конкуренції стислих номінативних одиниць англійської мови з менш компактними слов’янськими назвами: юзер “користувач”, байк “велосипед” [1, с. 196]. До перелічених причин варто, на наш погляд, додати вплив молодіжних субкультур, де англіцизми дістали неабияку популярність, у тому числі, завдяки спілкуванню в Інтернет мережі.

Англіцизми не завжди усвідомлюються мовцями як чужорідні елементи [2]. Це залежить від характеру позначуваного поняття та ступеня його інтернаціоналазації (андеграунд, брифінг, вікенд, віскі, ліфтинг, комп’ютер, серфінг, слоган, тренінг, фешн, банкінг, фітнес, фальстарт), особливостей звукової форми (тінейджер, дистриб’ютор, паблік рилейшнз, шопінг), типу запозичення (транскрипція чи калька: шериф, державний секретар, коп, прайм-тайм, бой-френд), ступеня граматичної адаптованості слова, рівня освіченості мовця та суб’єктивних особливостей сприйняття ним мовних знаків.

Інформаційна і мовна інтервенція здійснюється через такі середовища, як телебачення й радіо, пресу, масову культуру, Інтернет, інформаційне обслуговування споживчого ринку, особливо через рекламу [1, с. 190–191].

Інтенсивне проникнення англіцизмів у системи національних мов – міжнародне явище, викликане насамперед глобалізацією, наслідком якої в більшості країн стає дво- чи багатомовність.

Таким чином, запозичення англіцизмів передовсім пов’язане з науково-технічним прогресом, адже застосування іншомовних відбувається суголосно з винаходами іноземного походження, назви яких використовуються в українській мові на позначення абсолютно нових предметів, об’єктів, явищ. Цей процес употужнюється активною комунікацією носіїв різних культур, зокрема “неписаними канонами” неформальної комунікації в Інтернет-мережі.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Ажнюк, Б. М. Англізми в сучасній українській, російській і чеській мовах / Б. М. Ажнюк // Мовознавство. – 2008. – № 2–3. – С. 190–207.

2. Максимова Т. В. Заимствования в контексте лингвокультур: англо-русские параллели [Электронный ресурс] / Т. В. Максимова // Культура народов Причерноморья. – 2004. – № 49, Т. 1. – С. 100–103. – Режим доступа к журн. : http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/ Articles/KultNar/ 60_1/pdf/1-50ukaz3.pdf. – Название с экрана.


Максим Дереча

DISTANCE LEARNING IN THE WORLD

AND ITS PERSPECTIVES IN UKRAINE

Nowadays, at the times of Internet technologies many aspects of our life transferred to the network, thereby accelerating the pace of development of information society and across geographical barriers. Education is not an exception. It is not necessarily any more to be next to the teacher. The distant learning became the part of students’ lives long time ago, but its functions were very limited. Internet gives a chance to expand them, to make distance education really valuable and comprehensive. Distance learning is a type of educational services, which gains popularity worldwide. This type of learning is related to higher education and is one of its forms and ways of learning.

The widely known question “To be or not to be” for distance education is no longer relevant. It takes its social and meaningful place in the educational sphere worldwide. At the end of 1997, there were about 1000 schools of distance type in 107 countries. The number of those who graduated in the distance education in 1997 was about 50 million people in 2000 – 90 million people and as projected in 2023 it will reach 120 million people [1, p. 63–72]. 

The idea of distance education is not new. It originally comes from the wide-ranging need not to leave once working place for the period of education and it was introduced through correspondence education. In 1938 the International Council of Distance Education was founded which in 1982 renamed into The International Council of Distant Education (ISDE – Oslo, Norway, www.icde.org). New circumstances (increase in demand for education) and opportunities (computerization, new information technologies, telecommunications, etc.) made it possible to transfer learning at a distance to a different level – distance education was established.

The pioneer in the sphere of distance learning became Open University of the UK founded in 1969 – new type of educational institution, the world leader in distance education. In 1996, his seven faculties trained about 215 thousand people. Training Programme of the Open University of the UK takes place in 21 countries. The Open University business school, which has its branches in many countries, including Russia – “Link” (International Business School), is very popular in the world. Based on intergovernmental agreements “Link” got the exclusive right for distance education program of the Open University of the UK in Russia and CIS. “Link” has about 100 branches including three in Ukraine: Kyiv, Odessa, Kamyanets’ Podilsky. Education at Ukrainian branch is at the level of professional certificate and diploma in management. Education is not free; each course provides for students 3–5 homework assignments, participation in 4 tutorials and in a “Sunday” school and taking a written exam. The sequence of learning courses is the choice of the student [2].

From the moment of enrolment, the applicant becomes a student of the Open University of the UK. In case of completion, the curriculum and passing written exams certificate or diploma is given to the student on the model adopted in the UK.

Training is conducted mainly by “Case” – distance-learning technology. Every student is given for permanent use the case study literature, software and methodological support, reference books, CDs, audio and video cassettes. Requirements for level, volume and quality of knowledge and skills of graduates are according to British standards of manager’s proficiency. In 1987 the European Association of Distance Education Universities was founded which subsequently developed into the European Open University, it comprises 17 members, organizers from 15 countries.

Today distance learning in higher education in Europe has become an everyday practice. The most famous in open distance education are: National University of Distant Education, Spain (Universidad National de Education a Dictancia, Spain, www.uned.es), Netherlands Open University (Open University of the Netherlands, www.ouh. nl), Centre for Open Learning, Spain (Cento de Ensenanza a Distancia, Spain, www.ceac.com), Remote Hagen University, Germany and others. Market Research of distance learning in Ukraine and elsewhere shows that the pace of its growth is quite high, and in Europe it is estimated in billions of dollars. That is why every educational institution in Ukraine is extremely interested in taking place in this market as soon as possible. This will greatly increase the profit of educational institutions and will remove the problem of classrooms shortage, will help to solve the employment issue so that using video conferencing will lecture professors of educational institutions in other cities and even foreign countries [3]. 

Through distant learning students will be able to combine study and work, there is no problem of accommodation and living in a foreign city, reduced material costs for travel to the place of study. People with disabilities and people who for various reasons are not able to move can get training. Studying at the distance courses a student improves his intellectual and creative potential, learns how to gain knowledge without assistance and make decisions.

REFERENCES

1. Tatarchuk G. M. Institutionalization distance learning: sociological aspect / G. M. Tatarchuk // Education. – 2000. – № 1. – P. 63–72.

2. Освітній портал [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу : http://www.osvita.org.ua/. – 2011. – 15 квіт. – Назва з екрана.

3. Дистанційне навчання [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу : http://sez.donetsk.ua/dystancijna-osvita-v-yevropi/. – 2008. – 17 лип. – Назва з екрана.
Марія Докукіна

PARADOXES OF LEADERSHIP

A leader is somebody who can bring a group over to the decision of group situations, problems, tasks. A leader is a kind of mirror of the group [4, с. 21], a person, who converts colleagues (no matter inferiors they or not) on people which cooperate with him because of convictions. Such personalities can inoculate the awareness of importance of executable business, and from here is love to work [2, с. 12].

To become a leader, to get recognition, to stand out from the wide public is quite natural desire to humans as social beings. To seek leadership in the high sense of this word means to strive to occupy a worthy place in society, social group, be proactive, initiative, generate ideas, develop joint strategies of life and try to fulfill them. It means not to be indifferent to what is happening with other people and take responsibility of their fate. For someone, it can be his family, and for some – the whole humanity.

Nevertheless, for some reasons a person, who wants to be a leader, is not always admirable in the environment. Here we face the first psychological paradox: a man should and should not seek leadership [3, c. 31]. On the one hand, not to seek leadership is unwise, because the opposite means to want to become inferior, ordinary, unnoticed, and dependent and to blend into the crowd. Only degraded, stagnant or very weak person can want it. On the other hand, the man, who decided to fight for leadership, setting this as a goal, loses his chance at the very solution. In addition, the more active he will struggle for the status of the leader, the more distant he will be from the target. Psychological secret, according to V. Tatenko, is that leadership is interpersonal relationships [3, с. 31]. They, like friendship, are not to be exposed. They cannot be imposed as nobody can make you respect him.

The leaders are people either, so they get accustomed to the outstanding and prominent leaders’ life. That is why some of them, in order to remain in this capacity, are ready to drastically change their views, principles and even the number of supporters, willing to become “his” for those who have recently considered for “strange” and even personal enemies.

The second psychological paradox is “the best of the best, but not a leader” [3, c. 31]. This paradox arises in the traditional conflict between wishes and abilities. It would seem that a man is competent and experienced, productive and attentive, friendly to everyone, always ready to help, but for some reasons the group does not recognize him as a leader. Moreover, it gives its preferences to that person, who is not the best under all the criteria. Sometimes a conflict occurs because the front office appoints the best worker and excellent man for policy-making position, but the group opposes such a decision. The fact that the leadership contender certainly must have something important, stand out from the main group, but not enough to become the exception. He should correctly understand the importance of urgent problems, embody ideas and aspirations of the majority group members and to act in this direction, to realize the targets of the group, to preserve and develop the group wide values. However, this person must be an insider in the group, one that does not fall outside the circle “We” [1, c. 267].

The third psychological paradox of leadership: people can and cannot give up leadership roles [3, c. 32]. For example, it is known that managers are appointed by order or instruction. On the contrary, nobody can force a person to perform the leader’s functions. Leaders are chosen: sometimes secretly, and not even always consciously. Each of these elected representatives may reject the leadership (not to go ahead, not to take responsibility, etc.) in a particular group or situation. Paradoxically, the members of the group do not take into account the opinion of that one who is supposed to be a leader. After all, every member of the group decides to himself whom he likes. The man chosen as a leader can even leave the group, but he will remain a leader for it.

The fourth psychological paradox is the leader solves anything and nothing [3, c. 32]. The main function of a leader is to solve problem situation of the group, to take all-important decisions, to mobilize members for their execution, to lead team to victory and be responsible for the results. The members of the group expect independent, innovative ideas, bold projects and decisive actions from their leader. Nevertheless, the leader is a hostage of group traditions, norms, values, modes of behaviour and even styles. One careless step away from it all – and a person is no longer a leader.

REFERENCES

1. Мухин Ю. И. Наука управлять людьми / Ю. И. Мухин. – М. : Форум, 1995. – С. 268–269.

2. Стаут Л. Лидерство: от загадок к практике / Л. Стаут. – М. : Добрая книга, 2002. – 320 с.

3. Татенко В. Про парадокси лідерства / В. Татенко // Психология. – 2006. – № 5. – С. 31–32.

4. Турищева Л. В. Психологічні основи управління педагогічним коллективом / Л. В. Турищева // Управління школою : науково-метод. журнал. – 2005. – № 3. – С. 20–27.
Валерій Жамардій

MAN AS A PROJEKT OF A SELF-CONTROLED SYSTEM

Researches of recent years on the basis of quantum physics, neurophysiuology and psychology (Bom, Prybram, Pryhozhyy, Wolf) allowed to consider man as a microcosm with the concept of holograming structure of the Universe, holograming model of human consciousness, notions of man as a bearer of all information of the Universe. “Know yourself, and know the world” – Socrates said [1, p. 76].

Man – a system of pyramidal structure, which has three levels: lower, somatic (soma – body), middle, psychological (psyche – soul), the upper, spiritual (nous – spirit). Last level overconsciousness – irrational creative field. Pyramidal structure has its own laws. This hierarchical organization is the height (spiritual level), that determines the activity of whole system. Relationships between levels and elements are subject to the laws of harmony (rule of gold cut). This feature provides dynamic stability of the system and its development.

Man is a part of the Universe, and therefore its subsystem. In turn, in itself, in its biological structure people has minisystems reflecting the whole body (organismus – tools) – an integrated living system in which the activities of all structures, cells, tissues, organisms and their systems is agreed this whole subject. In addition, the organism is an open dynamic system that is in the moving equilibrium with the environment. Every cell is as elementary minisystem of body [2, p. 30].

Each of the three levels of “Man” look as a separate subsystem, organized by the same principle as a complete system. Subsystems operate relatively autonomously, but interconnected and hierarchically.

On the theoretical level of scientific knowledge the complex of living forces has such structure: body – soul – spirit. With the development of scientific theory, the transition from metaphysical method to dialectical method appeared theoretical and profound interpretation of each of these substances and their systems unity. They interact and are reflected through diversity of states. Last are reflected by specific set of causal series of certain groups (factors) that fundamentally not reduced to any binary oppositions or combinations of elements of this triad, even within theoretical interpretation. No element can exist as an independent substance and be isolated.

Physicality is a kind of information system, where within most complicated transformations on biological, psychological and social levels of its organization and self-organization, including self-regulation occur. All of them are related to the laws of the functioning and purpose of the body (biological organism). Physicality as a dynamic and interaction mirroring, self-regulatory unity of three “universes” (body, soul, spirit) in a variety of their states, interactions, combinations of live forces overcomes “irreducible” dualism: ideal and material, body and soul, “high” and “low”.

The unity of body and soul, continuous mutual reflection of their diversity states sets a space-time continuum of systems (of individual human body, his soul and body) of universe with which the first exchange of matter, energy, information, changing from “single” to “multiple”.

All levels of human nature – biological, psychological and social – in the aggregate interpret the human body as an open system where the exchange of matter, energy and information exist at each particular level of self-organization, self-regulation is organically correlative. They are cooperative. There is a synergistic relationship and interaction between them. In the system of determining factors of the living forces of the human body combinatorial bifurcation, leading to rupture and destruction of emerdzhentive links between biological, psychological and social can be observed. Simultaneously, exists a vision of affects (such as various irregularities, fluctuations, different bodily and spiritual diseases of the human body), so-called “strange attractors”. In the system of live forces the last is not surprising event, but logical [3, p. 90].

Much is rooted in man’s attitude to his life: too respectful or contemptuous, caring or completely indifferent. No less reasons lie in the way of life as a system of standard forms of everyday life, which are formed under certain conditions (i.e. in a particular society) and derived from their concept in which most fully realized human life position.

Lifestyle is characterized not only by why, but how one lives. Therefore it can be “healthy”, that means to meet the needs of natural and social in person, or “unhealthy” if a person (consciously or unconsciously) is not able to control his own actions, emotions and moods, but breaks the harmony of body and soul, destroys its own body both physically and mentally. Then the moment comes when the body is not able to self-regulate and recover.

So, providing a high efficiency of self-regulation (body, soul, spirit) is only possible under the design life of his own self-control on the basis of integrated application of valeological methods as a human health is a multi-hierarchical structure, which is the result of a huge number of different factors.

REFERENCES

1. Грибан В. Г. Валеологія : Навч. посіб. / В. Г. Грибан. – К. : Центр навчальної літератури, 2005. – 256 с.

2. Кюнцель Д. Организм человека [Пер. с нем.] / Д. Кюнцель. – Берлин : Б.в., 1988. – 434 с.

3. Міхеєнко О. І. Валеологія : основи індивідуального здоров’я людини : Навч. посіб. / О. І. Міхеєнко. – Суми : ВТД “Університетська книга”, 2009. – 400 с.



Богдана Захарченко
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