Бочаров В. Дрессировка служебных собак. / В. Бочаров. – М. : ДОСААФ, 1957. – 113 с.
Губинский В. И. Дрессировка собак / В. И. Губинский. – М. : СПБ, 1988. – 268 с.
Сахаров Н. А. Техника дрессировки служебных собак / Н. А. Сахаров.– М. : Россельхозиздат, 1966. – 144 с.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ACTIVITY IN NATURE
Strategic directions of modern preschool education foresee the change of requirements to the forms of cognition of natural environment: in place of surplus guardianship of children during socializing with nature to encouragement their independence in cognition of nature. A new approach to optimization of interaction of the preschool child with the nature as subject appeared. to express the necessity of forming competence of preschool child in a sphere “Nature” and of harmonious development of personality in general.
The retrospective analysis of the psychological and pedagogical sourses allowed asserting that experimentally-research activity in the nature has the deep historical past. Thus teachers (F. Frebel, M. Dobrolyubov, E. Tiheeva, V. Sukhomlynsky, A. Usova) considered experiments as investigated effective remedies of development and training of children, and psychologists (L. Vigotskiy, P. Blonskiy) and doctors (V. Rotenberg, S. Bondarenko) were engaged by a substantiation of the problem of natural desire of a child to experiment [2, с. 12–13]. The problem became topical only in XXth century with the hypothesis by М. Podyakova about recognition an experiment as a leading kind of activity of preschool children [3, с. 86].
The study of wide circle of sources helped us to define experimentally-research activity of preschool children as the activity in which the children carry out material influence upon an object of nature to investigate its laws and peculiarities.
The process of development of experimentally-research activity in nature is the most important at the age of three to ten years. It represents the dynamics of psychological development of a preschool child. At the same time, it demonstrates the importance of pedagogical conditions for preschool child wide-ranging development.
The experimentally research activity in nature is one of the most effective means of mental, valeological, physical, ecological, aesthetic, sexual, economic and labor education of children of preschool age [2, p. 27–28].
This has different features of structure. For that reason it requires from teachers a special complex training and deep knowledge of methodological aspects, for example, content, purpose, object, location, form of organization of the experiments by the teacher [3, с. 78]. The teacher should take care of creating such a new element of developing subject environment, as a child’s laboratory for the preservation of various equipment and materials. [1, с. 27–28]. Thus, programs such as “Little Explorers” (I. Sergeeva, T. Shumey), “Wildlife” (O. Smith), “Experimentation of the child: preschool age” (I. Kulikovska, N. Sovhyr) [3, с. 102–105] should answer a number of cognitive, social, environmental, aesthetic and creative challenges of organizing an experimentally-research activity in nature. At the same time, in order to systematize knowledge of senior preschool age children means we have developed the program “Child-researcher” and tested it based on kindergarten № 86 in Poltava. A number of relevant experiments is acquainted the children with an object or phenomenon to observe it by direct contacting.
Thus, pedagogical organization and guidance of experimental research activity in nature is the effective mean of development of personality of a preschool child. This type of activity provides research of objects and properties of living and lifeless nature in a certain logical sequence.
During this activity the preschoolers learn that everything in nature is connected with each other, that a human being, as a part of nature, should actively and positively influence the environment.
1. Менщикова Л. Н. Экспериментальная деятельность детей 4–6 лет: из опыта работы / Л. Н. Менщикова. – Волгоград : Учитель, 2009. – 130с.
2. Прохорова Л. Н. Организация экспериментальной деятельности дошкольников: методические рекомендации / Л. Н. Прохорова. – М. : АРКТИ, 2005. – 64 с.
3. Тугушева Г. Экспериментальная деятельность детей среднего и старшого дошкольного возраста : метод. пособ. / Г. Тугушева, Е. Чистяков. – СПб : Детство-ПРЕСС, 2008. – 128 с.
THE COMPUTATION OF SPURIOUS MOLAR
COMPRESSIBILITY OF WATER SOLUTIONS OF
At the state-of-the-art the physics of liquids is less advanced than solid and gas theories. One of the main tasks of the solution theory is the determination of the regularities of water solutions and the strength of electrolytes. The analysis of such values as equation factor, adiabatic compressibility factor, spurious molar compressibility provides the valuable information about the structure of electrolyte solution. Thus the main task of the solution theory is the acquisition of the solid data on different qualities of solutions and its theoretical generalization.
The ultimate aims of our scientific research are the computation of spurious molar compressibility of water solutions of calcium nitrate and the analysis of the variation of the compressibility of Ca(NO3)2 solutions according to the salt concentration. The received results of measurements and computations can be used for the analysis of structural and dynamical properties of fluid systems, in particular the fluid electrolytes.
During the analysis of the spurious molar compressibility we used the mass concentration scale for the strength range with the values from 7.14 to 39.68%. In our research the velocity of sound was measured using pulse-phase with the relative error of 0.5 % on a frequency of 10 MHz. The bottle method was used for the analysis of the substance density. The density bottle (the pycnometer) was calibrated in the twice-distilled water in advance. The estimated error of the density measurement is 0,05%. The given measurements have been carried out at the temperature of T=20.
According to the received experimental data for water solutions of calcium nitrate we calculated the spurious molar compressibility using the following formula
where β, β0 and ρ, ρ0 – adiabatic compressibility and density of the respective solution and the solvent, – the spurious molar weight of the dissolved substance, С – the number of moles of the dissolved matter in one thousand cubic centimeters of the solution .
Before the calculation of the molar compressibility one should calculate the adiabatic compressibility of the solution under investigation that can be determined by the following formula
where ρ – density of the fluid, с – the measured sound velocity .
The data on the compressibility can be used for the determination of the number of water molecules bound with the electrolyte ions in the water solution .
The graphical version of the results of the computation of compressibility of water solutions with the strength varying from 7.14% to 39.68% at a given temperature is presented on the picture number 1.
Picture 1. Concentration – molar compressibility diagram
Thus, one can conclude that the spurious molar compressibility of solutions decreases with the increase of the strength of solutions. One can observe it on the picture 1. At the points of the maximal magnitude of compressibility the value of concentration is minimal and the minimal value of compressibility would be reached under circumstances of the maximal magnitude of the concentration in the respective range of concentrations. There exists a considerable difference between the compressibility values for the solution with the strength of 7.14% and one with the strength of 39,68%. The abnormal trend of a curve can be explained by the phenomenon of hydrolysis that increases by the strength abatement, but one cannot assert about the influence of the hydrolysis for sure as the error of measurements of solution densities increases by the significant dilution.
1. Бокастов Г. М. Оценка степени гидратации фтористого алюминия в водных растворах различной концентрации путем измерения скорости ультразвука / Г. М. Бокастов // Журнал прикладной химии. – № 7, – 1967. – С. 1609.
2. Илгунас В. Исседование парциальных мольних сжимаемостей ионов в водных растворах многовалентных электролитов / В. Илгунас, Д. Руткунене // Акустический журнал, – № 1, – 1985. – С. 58–61.
MANAGEMENT PLANNING ACTIVITY FOR EQUIPPING PAVLENKIVSKIY PARK WITH MODERN AMENITIES
Being in society a person cannot be free of administrative influence of the state, society, coworkers, direct supervisors. First attempts of the scientific approach to production process management were marked in England in the first decades of the XIX ct., when large enterprises began to arise. In the initial stages of labor co-operation general management was carried out by the most experienced and able worker who suggested to execute his production duties. Together with the growth of production volumes and the complication of production duties, management itself becomes a separate function. The main person in production organization becomes the manager, a professional leader who is engaged in the group of questions: organizational, economic, technological, social and others if those questions are undecided, expansion of production seems to be impossible. The process of management formation as science and as a branch of independent researches was caused by the necessity of application of the most effective management methods in the process of production organization, by competitive activity “for a place under the sun” in the world of market, by necessities of large business, by the development of function distribution, responsibility and plenary powers in a state mechanism [1, p. 24; 3, p. 276].
Great number of scientists and investigators are focusing their attention on different aspects of study the concept “management” (Mazur I. I., Shapiro V. D., Shipunov V. D., Kishkel E. N. and others). Relying on their researches we tend towards understanding “management” as aggregate of the coordinated measures, directed to achievement of a certain goal put within the framework of organization [2, p. 19; 4, p. 37].
Writing the article we aimed to introduce the problem of management planning activity for equipping Pavlenkivskiy park with modern amenities. Tasks which I put before myself, to expose maintenance of work are
One the reasons why the creation of this work is necessary is that the improvement of equipping the park with modern amenities will improve comfort of not only the district population, but the visitors of the playground and kindergarden and the students of school №9 as well.
It is not widely known that Kiev district is one of the biggest districts in Poltava. Its territory by the state on January, 2006 is 5437,8 hectares, which is more than half of the city – 52,8% of its general area. The population of the district is 111,5 thousand people. Pavlenkivskiy park is situated on the territory of former village Pavlenki, known from the XVII ct. This land belonged to the representatives of petty officer Pavlenko. In 1707–1708 Pokrovskaya church was built in Pavlenki. The turbomechanic factory is located in Pavlenki. It developed on the base of cast iron workshops, opened in 1883 by a merchant woman named Poliakova. At the same time a railway was laid not far away, the Kiev railway station was opened, and former suburbs became the developed industrial district. The school-gymnasium № 9, that is alongside Pavlenkivskiy park is a favourite place of rest for inhabitants of the Kiev district and the town. In the park there is an ice skating rink which operates in winter and there are tennis courts which operate in summer.
Thus, equipping the school area with modern amenities is foreseen by the project. According to it the alley near the main entrance of the school will be expanded and transit paths will be organized. On the east side of the school area, near the library, the placement of underground rest rooms is planned for the visitors of the park. The center of activities area is the reconstructed stage, which presently is half ruined but also can be used for vaudeville, lectures and other cultural activities for people. Close to the main entrance it is suggested to build a small chapel in the square area of 100 m². It is suggested to place the chapel in an area surrounded by an array of trees and other plants facing east. The center of the park is a memorial area, in the form of an alley which is completed by the monument in honour of the lost employees of the factory. Along the alley it is suggested to set 38 memorial stones, 18 on each side in honour of the lost employees. In order to organize visual barrier from the side of local passages entrance areas are separated by rows and groups of trees.
Керівництво з питань проектного менеджменту. К. : Ділова Україна. – УКРНЕТ, 1999. – 198 с.
Мазур И. И. Управление проектами : учеб. пособие / [И. И. Мазур, В. Д. Шапиро, Н. Г. Ольдерогге] : под общ. ред. И. И. Мазура.. – 4-е изд. – М. : Омега-Л, 2007. – 664 с.
Словник-довідник з питань управління проектами / під ред. Бушуєва С. Д. – К. : Ділова Україна. – 2001. – 640 с.
Шипунов В. Г. Основы управленческой деятельности / В. Г. Шипунов, Е. Н. Кишкель. – М. : Высш. школа, 2000.
Forming cognitive interest OF
chemistry-MAJOR students in profession-oriented education
All teachers want their students to do well, with interest and desire to work in class. Nevertheless, at times teachers and parents state that theirs pupils: “do not want to learn”, “could well learn, but do not want”. In these cases we see that the student was not generated the need for knowledge, no interest in learning.
Experienced teachers know that student can not effectively teach if he takes care of training and knowledge, without interest. Inculcate an interest in future trade need more from school, because during this period formed a student as an individual.
Life shows that if the profession is chosen correctly, work for human becomes a source of joy, inspiration, benefit society and the same person.
In the modern world it is important that education would give a person new life strategies, life competence, facilitated the mobility of social behaviour, because it allows a person to overcome crisis situations, to choose their own career path.
Students need the ability to think, to understand the essence of things, comprehend ideas and concepts, look for the information, interpret it for use in unfamiliar situations. In modern school the optimal conditions for inculcate of such skills in a particular class of profession-oriented education is a pressing educational problems.
Profession-oriented education is the kind of differentiated instruction, which includes consideration of educational needs, inclinations and abilities of students, creating learning conditions for pupils according to their professional self-determination that is provided by changes in the objectives, content, structure and organization of educational process [1, с. 42–43].
The current trend in the educational sector of Ukraine is the transition to profession-oriented education. Teachers need conciderable instructional support services for it.
Profession-oriented strategy is to reduce non-profession oriented subjects and the deep study of profession-oriented. A variety of combinations of subjects leads to a flexible system of profession-oriented education.
This system includes the following educational components: general basic, profession-oriented and elective courses [2, p. 8]. At the preparatory stage profiling studies teacher profession-oriented subject (especially chemistry) is desirable to pay attention to:
1. Research individual skills of the student, theirs inclinations, desires, interests;
2. Material and technical base cabinet;
3. Teacher works elective courses, which surround the study of profession-oriented subjects;
4. Instructional support learning on the subject, carried out at four levels (low, middle, sufficient and high).
High school chemistry teacher should be not just a high level specialist, who corresponds to the structure and profession-oriented, but also provide:
Variation and personal orientation of the educational process (design of educational processes student);
The practical orientation of the educational process on the introduction of interactive active components (development of projective research methods and communication);
Diagnosis and evaluation of knowledge, level of thinking and general learning skills, experience, creativity and self-evaluative judgments;
Completion of high school students and self-profile of skills and competencies necessary for further education in the appropriate field of vocational education [2, p. 7].
Nowadays is the main question: how to work the lesson with the whole class and at the same time with each child?
Profession-oriented schoolteacher has to create conditions that would ensure the active promotion of pupils self-education activities based on self-education, self-development, self-expression during the acquisition of knowledge.
These conditions are:
Create a situation solving cognitive tasks, while investigating the situation, speculation, contemplation, mental stress situation, differences of opinion, the clash of different positions in which to understand himself, to approve the decision to accept a certain point of view.
Maintenance of the educational process at the optimum level that corresponds to the development of students.
In our opinion, quality chemical education needs reform, but not “revolutionary”, and “evolution”, based on the fundamentals of teaching chemistry content with the gradual introduction of changes in accordance with modern requirements.
Begin to change quality, in our opinion, is who should, and not blame that “sophisticated software”, “books are not”, “text is complicated”, “contingent weak students”.
1. Кизенко В. Профільне навчання: Проблеми впровадження / В. Кизенко // Біологія і хімія в школі. – 2008. – № 3. – C. 42–43.
2. Онаць О. Профільне навчання: проблеми та перспективи / О. Онаць // Директор школи. – 2007. – № 16. – C. 7–8.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENT CONFLIST BEHAVIOR
The period from 10 to 15 years – is, perhaps, the hardest one, as it is a stage of intensive developing of personality. At this age foundations of morality laid social settings, such as relation to oneself, to people, to society are formed. In addition, at this stage of life traits of character and basic forms of interpersonal behavior develop as well as self-awareness, which in adolescents expresses by changing of motivation and basic activities: education, communication, work [4, p. 452]. Inclusion a teenager in the orbit of serious interests accompanies with reorganization of mutual relations with surrounding people. Different kinds of protests, generating conflicts, are common reaction to misunderstanding with adults.
The problem of conflict has always been topical. Representatives of psychological trends considered this problem. The essence of the phenomenon of conflict featured in works by V. Andreyev, A. Antsupov, O. Bandurka, R. Blake, F. Borodkin, D. Dollard, O. Ershov, M. Krohius, O. Pervysheva, K. Thomas, Z. Freud, E. Fromm, T. Shybutani and others.
Conflict (lat. conflictus – clash) – is a collision of two or more diverse forces, motives, positions of the sides with purpose, object, goal to realize their fundamental interests in opposition from each side [5, p. 43].
A. Ishmuratov explains the nature of conflict by the twelve basic features, the main of which are:
conflict – is an active confrontation of opposed forces, subjects;
conflict is an expression of contrast views, actions, positions that brought to the stage of struggle;
conflict – is a dynamic phenomenon of social interaction;
conflict is the destruction of interpersonal relationships on the emotional, cognitive or behavioral level [3, p. 81].
Apparently, conflicts arise during the clash of views, interests and aspirations of different individuals or groups of people. Thus, the notion of conflict is wider than just a division between people, a quarrel or a deterioration of relations. However, conflicts are different. There are constructive conflicts, that positively affect to the lives of individuals and society and destructive, that lead to wars, violence, breaking of relationship, solitude and ruin. Constructive conflicts are found in the fundamental clashes of opinions, in discussions, destructive – are in small and large quarrels and misunderstandings. Therefore, destructive conflicts should quickly settle and liquidate.
R. Bezpalcha notes that conflict is constructive when it reveals the important problems those, as a result, become more comprehensible. In turn, the conflict is destructive when it reinforces the difference in attitudes towards values and encourages irresponsible and unattractive behavior (for example, offensive nicknames and fights) [1, p. 7].
It should be noted that in adolescence, kids have an inclination to destructive conflicts. So they need assistance in forming constructive behavior in conflict situations.
What is cause of conflicts? Polls, conducted by R. Bezpalcha in schools and universities, showed that the main reason, which leads to conflict in adolescence – is a lack of interest in teachers to a child, unwillingness and inability to understand his or her inner world. Most researches emphasized that it is not so much reluctance of teachers, as their inability, helplessing in resolving of many conflicts [1, p. 8].
Conflicts are caused by teenagers. Therefore, for understanding nature of adolescent conflict behavior we need to know such thing as self-esteem – i.e. personality’s self-appreciation, its capabilities, qualities and location among others [2, p. 356].
Self-esteem is an important regulator of adolescent behavior. Relationship of a child with surrounding people, as well as criticality, self-demanding, treatment to successes and failures depend from self-esteem. Self-esteem affects to efficiency of a young person activities and to further development of the individuality. That is why forming a positive self-esteem in adolescence is important to resolve and prevent conflicts.