Робоча програма з фізіології 12010001 Лікувальна справа 12010002 Педіатрія Івано-Франківськ 2014 Форма n н 04

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Interdiscsplinary integrations



To know

To be able



Anatomy of human.

Structure of eye. Leading ways of visual analyzer.

Schematically to represent the optical system of eye.

Histology and embryology





Mechanisms of refraction and accommodation of eye. Photochemistry reactions in a retina. Departments of visual analyzer.

To determine a sharpness and field of sight, perception of colors.


Internal-subject integration


Mechanisms of perception.

. Explain the importance of perception in shaping the mental functions of human.

Plan and organizational of lesson


The main stages of training, their function and content

Learning objectives 

Methods of control

Method. material

Time in hv.

First stage

  1. Organizational of lesson


  1. Raising of educational aims


  1. Control of initial level of knowledges


test control

Tests of the second level




Basic stage

Student”s self-work under the direction of teacher:

Control and correction laboratory work

Instructions to implementation of work


Examination of acuity of vision

Examination of visual field

Examination of color vision


Final stage

  1. Control and correction the level of practical skills.


Control of results of laboratory


List of questions for discussion


  1. Conclusion , points


  1. Home work.


Methodological support of lesson
Level of knowledge of initial The list of questions for oral examination

  1. Morphologic and functional organization of visual sensory system.

  2. Structure of optical system of eye.

  3. Refraction and accommodation of eye.

  4. Structure of retina. Mechanism of excitation of visual receptors.

  5. Theories of color perception, main forms of color perceptions.

  6. Binocular vision.

  7. Visual nervous pathways and cortical representation of vision.

The list of required practical skills

1. Evaluate the status of the visual sensory system for performance studies of its functions (visual acuity, field of vision, the ability to perceive colors).

Test tasks
1. The patient clearly see objects located at a short distance and poorly perceives distant objects. Please specify the reason for visual impairment:
A. Loss of elasticity of the lens.
B. Weak ciliary muscle.
C. Narrowing of the pupil.
D. Damage to the visual cortex.

2 The patient 60 old clearly see objects located at a long distance and poorly short distant objects. Please specify the reason for visual impairment:

A. Loss of elasticity of the lens, ciliary muscle weakness.
B. Elongation optical axis ca.
C. Lack of vitamin A.
D. retinal detachment.
E. ciliary muscle spasm.

3. The unit is considered to be visual acuity when the angle at which the eye can distinguish between two points is:

A. 1 sec.
B. 10 seconds.
C. 30 sec.
D. 60 sec.
E. 120 sec.

4. Where is the cortical visual analyzer department?

A. occipital cortex .
B. pariental cortex.
C. temporal cortex .
D frontal cortex.
E. hippocampus.

5. In humans, much worse vision in the dark night, visual acuity is normal. Specify the possible cause of this phenomena:

A. Lack of expansion of the pupils.
B. ciliary muscle contracture.
C. Myopia.
D. Deficiency of vitamin A.
E. Lack of cones in the retina.
Standards of answers: 1-D, 2-A, 3-D, 4-A, 5-D.
Materials control for the final stage:
In defense of protocols performed laboratory work students have to answer for following questions:
1. What are the possible ways to correct vision in myopia?
2. How can I correct the vision in hypermetropia?
3. What points should be encouraged in senile hyperopia.
4. Point out possible causes of decline of visual acuity?
5. What is the cause of "blindness"?
6. Why take a drop of atropinefor the eye cramps accommodation?
7. What is the essence of the theory of duality?
8. Where is the central cortical visual analyzer?
9. What is the cause of a violation of color perception?

1. Correction of the eye in myopia is the use of scattering lenses in eyeglasses or contact lenses.

2. In hypermetropia should recommend glasses with lenses teams.
3. In senile hyperopia using glasses with lenses teams.
4. The reason for decrease in visual acuity may be a violation of refraction apparatus of the eye, conductor and cortical parts of the visual analyzer.
5. The cause of night blindness is a deficiency of vitamin A, necessary for the synthesis of visual pigment rodopsin.
6. In spasm of accommodation have to take the atropine , as it blocks the M-holinoretseptors ciliary muscle and excludes stimulant effect on his parasympathetic nervous system.
7. The theory of duality states that retinal receptors perform different functions - sticks react to black and white and cones - in colored light.
8. Cortical visual analyzer center located in the occipital lobe cortex (17, 18, 19 filds by Brodman).
9. Violation of the perception of colors associated with congenital anomaly of X-chromosome.
Information Resources

The electronic version of teaching materials (Department of analytical and information support), multimedia presentations.



  1. Guyton and Hall., 2005 – Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th+ Editions.-p.613-650.

Additional :

  1. Vander, Arthur J., 1993 – Human Physiology: the mechanisms of body function / Arthur Vander, James Sherman, Dorothy Luciano . – 7th ed.-p.243-250.

  2. William F.Ganong ., 2001 – Review of Medical Physiology. – 20th ed.-p.12 chapter.

  3. Texts of lectures of physiology.

  4. Internet medical sites.

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