Практикум з граматики англійської мови Частина І хмельницький 2009 частина І part I англійські звуки ⊙



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Хмельницька гуманітарно-педагогічна академія

Кафедра іноземних мов
Ісакова І.М.

Сусліна І.В.

Практикум з граматики англійської мови
Частина І

Хмельницький - 2009

ЧАСТИНА І PART I

Англійські звуки

Довгий звук [ ɪ: ]

he three be we she tree

knee gee see Lee Dee fee

key pea tea agree keep heat

seat seek leap meek weak bead

read deep sweep repeat deplete concede

sweet

Here, take this seat. I think we all agree that the tree needs to be trimmed. When does he go out to sea? How can you leap to such sweeping conclusions? This heat is depleting my energy.


Прочитай як найшвидше ☻ Read as quickly as possible.
Ease, with equal ease, Japanese with equal ease, Chinese and Japanese with equal ease, speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease. He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.

Звук (дифтонг) [ а ı ]
hi bye tie die my sigh

try lie eye rye guy why

type write like pipe white wipe

Mike excite ignite light wide survive

knife time wine fine line bind

nine align I’m mime blind lime

pine dine rhyme
What time do you dine? Try to write like this. I’m fine right now. Where did you buy that beautiful tie? That was quite an exciting ride!
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible.
Mike, Mike likes, Mike likes pies, Mike likes spicy pies, Mike likes spicy pies with pike. Mike likes spicy pies with fried pike.

___________________

⊙ - аудіозапис, ☻ - вправи для самостійного опрацювання, ☼ - письмові вправи
Звук [ e ı ]

day hay weigh Ray may Kay

gay lay date hate wait rate

mate Kate gate late dame haste

waste raid made cape game lane

radio taper major


This is my roommate, Ray. Jake and Kate bought a great cake. I hate to wait for the news. Let’s not delay the game by changing the date. Don’t you just hate to pay your taxes?
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible.
Races, great races, for great races, a place for great races, a famous place for great races, this lake is a famous place for great races, this amazing lake is a famous place for great races. This amazing lake in Wales is a famous place for great races.
Звук [ ɔɪ ]
boy coy toy Roy soy joy

enjoy employ cloy doily annoy poi

rejoice voice Boyd Lloyd avoid

voyage Freud loiter join joint ointment

coin choice oyster poison cloister void

moist loyal royal flamboyant


Try some ointment on your joints. That boy has too many toys. I heard Freud’s voice in my dream. We made our choice by flipping a coin. Please void this check.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Toys, breaking toys, enjoys breaking toys, a boy who enjoys breaking toys, a noisy boy who enjoys breaking toys, a spoilt noisy boy who enjoys breaking toys. Troy is a spoilt noisy boy who enjoys breaking toys.
Звук [ u: ]
blue too through who woo sue

drew zoo glue review you construe

pursue debut Magoo few shoe boo

tube feud exude moon June soon

typhoon balloon resume exhume buffoon cartoon

rude deduce new duke conclude

Luke kook excuse amuse tune

few pew ewe excuse perfume

huge refuge cute beauty
Don’t be too rude to Drew. What can you deduce from the review of your play? A few of us want to walk through the zoo. June uses too much perfume. How much fruit does that animal consume?
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
A pool, a school pool, a blue school pool, a blue school pool is cool. Choose a blue school pool, it’s cool!

Звук [ ɔu ]
hoe row bow low so go

Joe know toe blow foe mow

oh Poe stow woe dough slow

pope rope goad load road wrote

vote note slope don’t elope joke

soak roam cone phone tone grown


Edgar Allan Poe wrote many short stories. Do you know where the note was stowed? Leave a message after the tone and I’ll phone you back. You aimed your bow a little too low. What kind of joke do you know?

Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible


The road, the road below, the road below goes, the road below goes from Rome, the road below goes from Rome to the coast. The road below goes from Rome to the south coast. We are very close to our home.
Звук [ аu ]
ow how wow sow cow bow

now chow pow row vow loud

rout about shout doubt rowdy dowdy

slouch crouch couch powder flowers shower

town clown round gown brown down

mound drown found wound noun pound

How many pounds of ground round do you want? If you take this route, you’ll arrive in about an hour. Do you doubt that I found out about my surprise shower? We wound round and round until we found the town. How many nouns have you found in this sentence?
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
A cow, a brown cow, a brown cow now, a brown cow now lives in a house, a brown cow now lives in a round house, a brown cow now lives in a round house in a town. Wow!

A brown cow now lives in a round house in a town!


Короткий звук [ e ]
bet bed Ben bled Deb dead

debt dread den fed fled head

jet led let leapt met men

test red neck rest rev said

Ted invest connect address suspect west

wet dress stress extend regular request

excellent
Ted cleared his debt with an investment. This address will give you the connection you need. Just let me rest my neck on the bed for a minute. When did you request an extension on your deadline? This red dress is all wet.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Hens, red hens, best red hens, ten best red hens, Ted sells ten best red hens. Every day Ted sells ten best red hens.


Звук [ ɪ ]
is it in wrist kiss fit

sip swim dim gym fix hid

kid pin lip lick slip wish

Dick pick sick tip list Rick

history continue Mickey resist exit Nicholas

consist exist trick fish switch busy

triple been
Do you wish to exit the theatre? I tried to slip this bracelet over my wrist, but it doesn’t fit. I wish to be picked up at six. The list is hidden in a closet. I’ve been busy.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Sticks, big sticks, six big sticks, with six big sticks, to be on the picnic with six big sticks, a witch wished to be on the picnic with six big sticks. A wicked witch wished to be on the picnic with six big sticks.

ПОРІВНЯННЯ: [ ɪ ] / [ e ]

Comparison: short [ ɪ ] / [ e ]

pit / pet wrist / rest miss / mess

slipped / slept Sid / said fist / fest

lid / led hid / head did / dead

bid / bed

Короткий звук [ ɒ ]
hop stop rop job Tom sob

lock rock cop John Ron palm

shop lingerie father astonish Connie honest

operate not possible stock bottle blond


Rob and Tom were stopped by a cop. Connie sobbed and locked the door. Is it possible you forgot to lock the shop when it got robbed? Don got a job in a shop. Stay calm and stop rocking the boat.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Bob, Bob’s dog, Bob’s dog got, Bob’s dog got a pot, Bob’s dog got a hot pot, Bob’s dog got a hot pot of porridge. Bob’s dog got a hot pot of porridge and some chops.

Звук [ æ ]
cat bag sag lap wrap man

last fast gas track pack trash

Mac half have has apple magazine

attitude candid tragedy handy cavity sandwich

habit
Wrap your trash in a bag. I’ll just sit on the grass with my magazine, my sandwich, and my apple. What kind of an attitude is that? The black cat is happy in my lap. Sarah said I had bags sagging under my eyes.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
A cat, a black cat, a black cat sat, a black cat sat on a mat, a black cat sat on a mat and ate. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.


ПОРІВНЯННЯ: [ æ ] / [ e ] / [ ɒ ]
bad / bed had / head rack / rock

Dad / dead bag / bog fad / fed

sad / said tan / ten cat / cot

sand / send land / lend band / bond


[ ɔ: ]
saw awful coffee draw jaw bought

taught fought Paul paw gaudy raw

off all straw caught ought dog

dawn cough pawn walk talk water

thought lawn daughter
What happened to the dog’s paw? Paul looked awful the last time I saw him. I ought to get up at dawn. This cough is from the cold I caught. I thought the coffee was awful today.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Football, more than football, basketball more than football, adore basketball more than football, boys adore basketball more than football, tall boys adore basketball more than football, all tall boys adore basketball more than football. Almost all tall boys adore basketball more than football.
Звук [ u ]
could should would good foot look

put took soot hood push woman

cook nook book hook shook bush

brook crook cushy


Here’s a book on healthful cooking. Is this a very good neighborhood? Doctor, could you look at my foot, please? Would you give me a push? Take a look at the woman in the red hood!
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Cooks, good cooks, for good cooks, a book for good cooks, a cookery book for good cooks, a good cookery book for good cooks. Look! This is a good cookery book for good cooks.
Звук [ ʌ ]
hut but bud flood cuddle supper

pun bun ton honey come son

fun run love money funny jump

lump summer lovely sudden dumb wonderful

pump hug bug double
You look funny when you jump. We won a ton of money. Her son will come for supper. This has been a wonderful summer. The sun suddenly came flooding in.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
A duck, an ugly duck, an ugly duck was in a cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup on Sunday, An ugly duck was in a funny cup on a sunny Sunday.

Confusing vowel pairs ДОВГИЙ ЗВУК [ ɪ: ] / КОРОТКИЙ ЗВУК [ ɪ ]

sheep / ship deep / dip read / rid

heat / hit peat / pit seek / sick
Why do you like to sit in this seat? These shoes fit my feet. At least make a list. Don’t get rid of all the books I like to read. We got hit real hard by the heat.
ДОВГИЙ ЗВУК [ eɪ ] / КОРОТКИЙ ЗВУК [ e ]

raid / red laid / led wade / wed

bait / bet mate / met trade / tred
They led us to where the eggs had been laid. Jed bought some beautiful jade. Don’t let me be late. Get the back gate. Fred said his nerves were frayed.
ДОВГИЙ ЗВУК [ou ] / КОРОТКИЙ ЗВУК [ ɒ ]
road / rod hope / hop soak / sock

coat / cot toad /Todd slope / slop

cloak / clock code / cod
We always rode through town in a hot rod. Todd found a toad. My socks were soaked after the downpour. Don’t throw your coat on the cot. What’s the area code for Cape Cod?

ДОВГИЙ ЗВУК [ u: ] / КОРОТКИЙ ЗВУК [ ʌ ]
soon / sun tune / ton super / supper

boon / bun shoot / shut coop / cup

mood / mud boot / but
Soon the sun will set again. There are a lot of roots in the rut. They played a ton of tunes on the radio yesterday. But where are your boots? That was a super supper.
Сполучення голосної та R
Were hurt bird bur sir fur

Dirt shirt learn herd curd skirt

Bert serve jerk curt word work

Curl Burl earl girl churl hurl

Merle furl pearl world whirl
The little girl whirled around in her long skirt. Merle’s shirt is dirty. A gull is a common seabird. Where in the world did you get such curly hair? It can be dull in a rural area.

Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible


A girl, a circus girl, Pearl is a circus girl, Pearl is a circus girl who works, Pearl is a circus girl who works with birds.
Art car card cart Bart mart

Mar jar tarp sharp start park

Dark shark tar far
Can we go to the park and play ball? Be sure to start out before dark.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Charming, are large and charming, farms are large and charming, gardens and farms are large and charming. The parks, gardens and farms are large and charming.

Order orchestra ford fork Porsche

Lord torpedo cork reward sort

Gorge north sword


What sort of Ford do you own? Order some forks for the salad. We need to sort through the old boards. What sort of orchestra plays in your city? What’s the reward for the stolen Porsche?
Дифтонги [ ɪə ]
Ear near here beer gear spear

Tear fear jeer deer leer seer

Mere rear steer we’re weird peer

Career year


Do your ears feel better? I don’t think I’d like to eat eel for any meal. We’re ready for some beer. Do you feel like peeling apples? Bob has nearly sealed the deal.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible

The theory, the theory of this engineer, the theory of this experienced engineer, the theory of this experienced engineer is clear, the theory of this experienced engineer is really clear. My dear! The theory of this experienced engineer is really clear.



[ ]

air bear stare care mare hair

dare wear share pair fair lair

rare
That species of whale has become rare. If you can’t post bail, you’ll go to jail. My sister and I share everything we wear. We all care about clean air.


Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Hares, rare hares, take care of rare hares, my parents take care of rare hares. My parents rarely take care of rare hared and canaries.
[ ou ]
coal troll soul hole pole dole

stole role mole foal whole toll

bowl
Moles live in underground holes. Life takes a troll on us poor souls. He really stole that role in the movie. An expensive gold bowl was stolen from the museum. They dug deep holes for the telephone poles.
[ аɪə ]
fire tire hire pyre wire squire

inspire require ire mire liar sire

spire attire desire transpire
It’s time to fire that liar. Giles’s attire is always in style. It’s about a mile out to the isle. I’m too tired to file. What inspired you to visit the Nile?
[ ʊə ]

poor pure your boor your endure

demure procure moor contour mature
The poor man is such a boor. You sure can endure a lot! They’re sure to find a cure some day. However did you procure this jewel?


ПРИГОЛОСНІ
[ r ]
river arrow rise right bigger road

radio red raid mirror write reporter

wrong orange rare refrigerator ride

rest restaurant


The arrow raced to its target. Please don’t raid the refrigerator. The Red Anchor Restaurant is in the harbor. The radio has the real news. I think I took a wrong turn. Robert prefers to ride on the right side. Raymond wrote the red book.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
The track, across the track, a tree-trunk across the track, trapped by a tree-trunk across the track, trucks are trapped by a tree-trunk across the track. This train and trucks are trapped by a tree-truck across the track.
[ ð ]
this these that those other breathe

there they father weather rather them


Sam can’t breathe well in this kind of weather. My skin feels smooth after I bathe. Where did this other one come from? Do you know whether they live there? I’d rather not wear leather. Either your father or your mother can sign this. There were a lot of those books there.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
My mother. My mother and father, my mother, father and brother, my mother, father and brother go bathing, my mother, father and brother go bathing together. My mother, father and brother go bathing together in any weather.
[ θ ]
breath thing warmth health third authors

think nothing bath therapy faith math

wealthy ether ethics
Math is the one thing I don’t like. He was once wealthy, but he lost everything. We are nothing without ethics! Three warm baths a day are good therapy. The path to the theater is open now. Thanks for the thought!

Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible

My birthday, my thirteenth birthday, my thirteenth birthday is on Thursday, my thirteenth birthday is on Thursday next month. My thirteenth birthday is on Thursday on the thirteenth of next month.
ПОРІВНЯННЯ [ θ ] / [ ð ] COMPARISON [ θ ] / [ ð ]


Mouth/ mouthe breath/breathe

Thought/though cloth/clothe

Think/this ether/ either

Thigh/thy wrath/ rather
What are those things over there? They don’t know whether he’s wealthy or not. The man in the leather jacket is very thoughtful. The weather man says it’s thirty-three degrees. This warmth is rather odd this year. There are a few things I need to think about.

[ ʃ ]
shy should share wash fashion shoulder

usher push shop shout fish show

shoes she
Should I share my favorite chocolates? The usher showed us to our seats. Wash your hands after you finish that. Those shoes are all the fashion. Did I mention the shop on the corner? Sharon is so shy. Shout in that direction. Wear your special shorts. Some pushy people were shopping today. Could you show us how to fish? It sounds like she has whiplash.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Dishes, wash dishes, don’t wash dishes, wishes don’t wash dishes. I’m sure that wishes don’t wash dishes.


[ ʒ ]

azure beige garage delusion pleasure leisure

Asian vision measure fusion confusion
I need to have my vision measured soon. It’s a pleasure to meet you. It’s a fusion reactor. There was confusion in the garage about the owner of the beige sedan. It’s a simple problem of confusion. The sky is azure blue today. Is it casual day today?

Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible

Parrot, Polynesian parrot, the usual Polynesian parrot, this is the usual name for the usual Polynesian parrot. This is just the usual name for the usual Polynesian parrot.

[ ]
George orange June job Jenny

Age manage large marriage rejuvenate

Jack jet just subject rage
George, can you manage without your jacket? Mr.Jones’s jet has just arrived. Judy isn’t telling anyone her age. Their marriage was in June.i just forgot the subject. Jenny’s doing a good job.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible

Language, the German language, learning the German language, Jim learning the German language, Jack and Jim learning the German language. Just imagine Jack and Jim learning the German language.


[ ]
church watch ouch lurch change lunch

chicken wrench hunch choice Charles choose

charity child channel
I don’t want chicken for lunch, thank you. Charles chose his team carefully. Mary left her watch at the church. This charity is for children. Ouch! I wrenched my ankle! When can I choose the channel? Let’s change lunch places. What choice does a child have?
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Lunch, the children’s lunch, chocolate for the children’s lunch, chops, cheese and chocolate for the children’s lunch, I’d choose chops, cheese and chocolate for the children’s lunch. How much is all that?

ПОРІВНЯННЯ [ ʃ ] / [ [ ] COMPARISON [ ʃ ] / [ [ ]

Wash/watch share/chair chic/chic

Hush/hutch shoes/choose wish/witch

Cash/catch sheep/cheap shop/chop

Dish/ditch mash/match shin/chin
I don’t like the shoes. I don’t like to choose. My wash is on. My watch is on. They’re well mashed. They’re well matched. Put it in the dish. Put it in the ditch. She’s hit her shin. She’s hit her chin. We went to the marsh. We went to the march.
[ t ]
traffic terrible hotel task terrific tomorrow

town too time Tuesday tight attack

tire timid towel
The traffic was terrible today. I’m going out of town tomorrow. Tom attacks his work right away. You may be too timid. This task takes so much time. Tina will be too tired tomorrow. They’ll go into town on Tuesday. Your tie looks really terrific. What time is the movie tomorrow night? Use the terry cloth towel tonight.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible

The tunnel, through the tunnel, tore through the tunnel, the train tore through the tunnel, the two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel. Tell me when the two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel.


[ d ]
during address Adella dress adolescent

adorable debate dance double condition

desk Doug delight idea identity
What an adorable little dog! Please be quiet during the address. I don’t dare double date. You dance divinely. He was delighted with my idea.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Dishes, Dutch dishes, traditional Dutch dishes, tried traditional Dutch dishes, David’s daughter tried traditional Dutch dishes, David’s elder daughter tried traditional Dutch dishes. David’s elder daughter tried traditional Dutch dishes yesterday.
ПОРІВНЯННЯ [ t ] / [ d ] COMPARISON [ t ] / [ d ]
Tall/doll time/dime tome/ dome

Ten/den tie/dye tell/dell

Tile/dial try/dry tip/dip
Do you have the time? Do you have a dime? I’ll take a tip. I’ll take a dip. It’s done. It’s a ton. Tie the shirt. Dye the shirt. Te is tall. He’s a doll. Don’t touch that tile. Don’t touch that dial.


[ ŋ ]
wing hang string singer tongue wrong

thing ding pinging Bing song long

tongs ring bring
All these answers are wrong. Let’s sing a song before we go. The phone is ringing. How long will that pinging sound go on? What’s wrong with this thing? Bring the tongs here please.
Anger single jungle tangle wrangle jingle

Huger finger longer longest stronger strongest.


He’s the strongest man I’ve ever seen. What is the longest river? It’s a jungle out there. Try to wrangle for the best bargain. The children sang Jingle Bells again.
Прочитай як найшвидше. ☻ Read as quickly as possible
Songs, spring songs, singing spring songs, birds singing spring songs, listening to birds singing spring songs, like listening to birds singing spring songs, nothing like listening to birds singing spring songs. There is nothing like listening to birds singing spring songs.


ЧАСТИНА ІІ PART II

ДІЄСЛОВОto be ” The Verb “ to be
Дієслово “ to be “ відповідає українському дієслову бути, є, знаходитися, являтися. Вживається у функції допоміжного дієслова-зв’язки складеного присудка і в цьому разі звичайно не перекладається.

В українській мові у реченнях типу Він – водій. Сумка синя. Я – вдома. Студенти – за партами. Ми з Хмельницького. Їй п’ятнадцять. присудок, виражений дієсловом, випущений: Він (є) водій. Сумка (є) синя. Я (є, знаходжусь) вдома. Студенти (є, знаходяться) за партами. Ми (є) з Хмельницького. Їй (є) п’ятнадцять. В англійському реченні випускати присудок не можна. Речення такого типу будуються за допомогою дієслова to be (am, is, are). He is a driver. The bag is blue. I am at home. The students are at the desks. We are from Khmelnytskyi. She is fifteen.

Дієслово to be змінюється за особами та числами!


число

о особа


Иси ОДНИНА

МНОЖИНА

1 I
2 YOU


3 HE

SHE


IT



am clever, Ukrainian,

at the table, twenty



are ready, cold, happy,

in bed, out, Jeff,



is a cook, in white,

OK, not bad, lazy,

a monkey, here.

WE
YOU


THEY


are friends, at work,

thirteen, tall, in,



are from Kyiv, actors,

Tom & Bill, English,



are mistaken, busy,

good at music,

her parents, right.

Стверджувальні форми дієслова to be також можуть скорочуватись:



  1. Після особових займенників:

I am = I’m We are = We’re

He is = He’s You are = You’re

She is = She’s They are = They’re

It is = It’s



  1. Після вказівних займенників та питальних слів (переважно s) :

Here’s your book. What’s the time?

That’s all right. Where’s Jane?

There’s our house. Who’s there?


  1. Інколи після іменників (переважно s):

Mary’s right. My sister’s a doctor.
Дієслово to be відноситься до групи сильних дієслів і самостійно утворює заперечні речення і з допомогою заперечної частки “not”, котра ставиться після нього.He is not a driver. The bag is not blue. I am not at home. The students are not at the desks. We are not from Khmelnytskyi. She is not fifteen.

Щоб поставити питання, дієслово to be ставиться на перше місце в реченні:

Він водій? Is he a driver?

Сумка синя? Is the bag blue?

Я вдома? Am I at home?

Студенти за партами? Are the students at the desks?

Ми з Хмельницького? Are we from Khmelnytskyi?

Їй п’ятнадцять? Is she fifteen?


В спеціальних питаннях (запитання до окремих членів речення) на першому місці стоять питальні слова:

What [ wɔt ] Що? Який?

Where [ w ] Де? Куди?

When [ wen ] Коли?

Why [ wаɪ] Чому?

Who [ hu ] Хто?

Whom [ hum ] Кого, кому?

Whose [ huz] Чий? Чия? Чиї? Чиє?

Which [wɪtʃ] Який? Котрий?

How [hаu] Як?

How often [hаu] [ɔfn ] Як часто?

How long [hаu] [ lɔŋ] Якої довжини? Як довго?

How old [hаu] [ould] Скільки років?

How much/many… [hаu] [ mʌʧ] / [mænɪ] Скільки?

What colour [ wɔt ] [kʌlə] Якого кольору?

What kind of… [ wɔt ] [ kаɪnd ɔv ] Що за, якого виду?


Питальні слова what, whose і which уживаються з іменниками:


Яка музика тобі подобається? What sort of music do you like?

Які цукерки ти їси? What kind of sweets do you eat?

Який розмір черевиків ти носиш? What size of shoes do you take?

Якого кольору твої очі? What colour are your eyes?

Котру (яку) ручку ти хочеш? Which pen do you want?

Чия це книга? Whose book is that?
Питальне слово how уживається з прикметниками або прислівниками:
How tall…? Якого зросту?

How far…? Як далеко...? На якій відстані...?

How many…? Скільки...? (Питання до злічувальних іменників)

How much…? Скільки...? (Питання до незлічуваних іменників)

How long? How often? How old?
Який ти на зріст? How tall are you?

Як часто ти ходиш до кінотеатру? How often do you go to the cinema?

Як далеко розташована твоя академія? How far is your academy?

Якої довжини ваш балкон? How long is your balcony?


Після питальних слів ставиться допоміжне дієслово to be (am, is, are):

Who is a driver? What color is the bag? Where am I? Why are the students at the desks? Where are you from? How old is she? What kind of purse is it?


Запам’ятайте!

To be happy бути щасливим

To be angry сердитись

To be sure [ ʃʊə] бути впевненим

To be ready бути готовим

To be late запізнюватись

To be sorry шкодувати

To be hungry [hʌŋrɪ] бути голодним

To be thirsty [θə:stɪ] відчувати спрагу

To be glad бути радим

To be sad бути сумним

To be ill бути хворим

To be mistaken помилятись

To be busy ['bızı] бути зайнятим

To be over бути закінченим

To be in бути присутнім

To be out [аut] бути відсутнім

To be tired [tаɪəd] бути втомленим

ВПРАВИ


  1. Поставте дієслово to be у потрібній формі: am, is, are.



I

Tom



Bob

Jane and Jim

These women

The baby


The bee

The book


Hares

Dan and I

Sue

Our family



The actors

Nikki


to be

a driver

a girl.


friends.

black and yellow.

cheap.

French.


housewives.

twenty.


hungry.

kind.


students.

out.


at home.

white or grey.

tall.

from China.


Боб – водій.

Ніккі – дівчинка.

Джейн і Джім – друзі.

Бджола – чорно-жовта.

Ця книга – дешева.

Ці актори – французи.

Ці жінки – домогосподарки.

С’ю – двадцять.

Дитина – голодна.

Том – добрий.

Ден і я – студенти.

Боба немає вдома.

Наша родина вдома.

Зайці – білі чи сірі.

Я – висока.

Ці жінки – з Китаю.


2 ☼ Утворіть заперечні речення та загальні питання за зразком:

Зразок: She is my younger sister.

She is not my younger sister.

Is she your younger sister?


  1. We are at home.

  2. They are all friends.

  3. It is cold in November.

  4. She is in the garden.

  5. People are all different.

  6. This sentence is correct.

  7. You are fond of sport.

  8. Her name is Oksana.

  9. These trees are very old.

  10. This lake is deep.

  11. They are the same age.

  12. I am your friend.




  1. Перекладіть речення англійською мовою.




  1. Вона не художник, вона – співачка.

  2. Мій тато вчитель. Зараз він в школі.

  3. Хто твій друг – Олесь чи Тарас?

  4. Мої друзі – мої однокласники.

  5. Я на подвір’ї, а мої батьки вдома.

  6. Я учень, а моя старша сестра – студентка.

  7. Сьогодні тепло й сонячно.

  8. Україна знаходиться в центрі Європи.

  9. Де дідусь? – Він в саду.

  10. Ось наша вулиця. Вона дуже гарна.

4. Складіть спеціальні запитання за таблицею:



What Where

Why
How old

Who


is
am

are

I

you



he

she


it

we

they



busy?


here?

in Rome?


at home?

from?


in the room?

hungry?




5. Вставте дієслово to be у відповідній формі теперішнього часу:


1.Where___ you? – I ___ in the kitchen.

2.Where ___ Lisa and John? – They ___ at college.

3.___ you busy? – No, I ___ not. Mike ___ busy.

4.We ___ interested in classical music.

5.His lectures ___ very interesting.

6.Nick’s flat ___ on the second floor.

7.Where ___ the keys? – In your jacket.

8.It ___ ten o’clock. She ___ late again.

9.Two heads ___ better than one.

10.___ your grandparents pensioners? – No, they ___ not.




ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАС

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense вживається для вираження

1) дії, що відбувається в момент мовлення: You are not listening to me. – Ти не слухаєш мене.

2) тривалої дії, що відбувається в певний період теперішнього часу, хоч і не обов’язково в момент мовлення:

-What are you doing here in Khmel’nytskyi? – Що ви робите тут, у Хмельницькому?

-I am studing at the Khmelnytskyi Humanitarian Pedagogical Academy. – Я вчуся в Хмельницький гуманітарно педагогічній академіі.

3) дії, яка здається безперервною (здебільшого тому, що є набридливою):

He is constantly eating something. – Він постійно щось їсть.

They are talking all the time. – Вони весь час розмовляють.

Цей час утворюється за допомогою допоміжного й основного дієслів. Допоміжним є дієслово to be. Основне дієслово має закінчення -ing. Частка to не вживається. Наприклад: I am reading a book now. Я зараз (у даний момент) читаю книжку.

She is playing chess now. Вона зараз грає в шахи.

We are learning English. Ми вивчаємо англійську мову.

(в даний момент).

I am having lunch. Я обідаю.



To be + V-ing

Отже формула цього часу –


V=verb=дієслово


Якщо дієслово закінчується буквою e , то ця літера перед закінченням -ing

не пишеться.

Наприклад: to write – I am writing, to take – I am taking.
Деякі групи дієслів не вживаються в часах Continuous, зокрема в

Present Continuous:

Фізичне сприйняття, відчуття:

Feel відчувати

Hear чути

Notice помічати

See бачити

Smell відчувати запах

Taste
Емоції, почуття, відчуття

Adore обожнювати

Care дбати, піклуватися, любити

Dislike не любити, відчувати огиду

Envy заздрити

Fear боятися

Hate ненавидіти

Hope надіятися

Like любити, подобатися

Love кохати, любити

Regret шкодувати, розкаятися

Respect поважати, шанувати


Бажання, волевиявлення:

Desire (want, wish) бажати, прагнути

Need потребувати

Prefer воліти


Уяву, мислення:

Consider вважати, гадати

Fancy уявляти собі, припускати

Imagine уявляти

Know знати

Mind мати на увазі, пам’ятати

Presume припускати, гадати

Remember думати, гадати, вважати

Understand розуміти, зрозуміти
Інші дієслова:

Agree погоджуватися

Believe вірити

Belong належати

Compare порівнювати

Cost коштувати

Differ різнитися

Find знаходити

Have мати (щось), але I’m having dinner now.

Seem здаватись


Ці дієслова треба вживати в часах групи Indefinite.

Заперечна форма дієслова в Present Continuous утворюється так:


To be + not + V-ing

Наприклад: I am not going anywhere. Я нікуди не йду.

It is not raining any longer. Дощ вже не йде.

They are not listening to her. Вони її не слухають.



Загальні запитання утворюються за формулою:
Am I

Is he/she/it +V-ing…?

Are we/you/they
Наприклад: Are you reading anything? Ви щось читаєте?

Yes? I am./No, I am not. Так./ Ні

Is Jane going anywhere? Вона кудись йде?

Yes, she is./No, she isn’t. Так./ Ні.


Спеціальні запитання утворюються за допомогою спеціальних питальних слів
What

Where am
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