Методичні вказівки щодо практичних занять з навчальної дисципліни «граматичні проблеми перекладу»

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Тема 10 Переклад пасивного стану дієслова

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу дієслів у пасивному стані.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Способи перекладу дієслова-присудка в пасивному стані. Особливості перекладу підмета перед присудком у пасивному стані. Особливості перекладу пасивного стану дієслів що мають прийменниковий додаток.

Переклад сполучень типу «take care of» у пасивному стані. *Поділ дієслів на перехідні неперехідні в англ. мові та способи їх перекладу.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською мовою:

1. After several meetings with US colleagues, the Eurasian group was inspired to take a look at the way the Eurasian envi­ronmental movement has changed over the last five years.

2. The literal translation of the book was completed very quickly, by a group of researchers at the St. Petersburg Centre for Gender Studies.

3. The children of wealthy Sri Lankans are educated at universities abroad; less well-off youth are taught in state universities, which practically condemns them to bottom-rung jobs that require no English.

4. For thousand of years gold dust has been extracted from the rivers draining the Caucasus area by placing sheepskins on the stream bottom to trap the particles.

5. My grandfather participated in archaeological digs at the turn of the century and was struck by the respect that had been accorded to female burials.

6. Yellow cardinals can still be seen in pairs or small flocks in a few southern localities, but the future of these songbirds in the wild remains threatened without protection.

7. Five colossal statues, more than 25 sphinxes, and nearly 2,000 architectural pieces are also being lifted from the seafloor. They may have been thrown into the harbour by the 14th-century Egyptian rulers.

8. Students are asked to perform simple tasks that will give them the opportunity to talk together about places and experiences. They may be asked to interpret maps and schedules or to complete a questionnaire.

9. Just over 2 per cent of the British workforce is engaged in agriculture, a lower proportion than in any other leading industrialized country.

10. Direct control on pay, prices, foreign exchange, dividend payments and commercial credit have been abolished.

11. In alms-giving more injury is probably done by rewarding vice than by relieving virtue.

12. One of the reassuring aspects of the modern world is that much thought is now being given to the possible effects of the future applications of science.

13. Although it is common knowledge that sometimes chance is a factor in the making of discovery, the magnitude of its importance is seldom realized and the significance of its role is not fully appreciated or understood. A good maxim for the research man is "look out for the unexpected."

14. At present, in consequence of the existence of private property, a great many people are enabled to develop a certain very limited amount of individualism.

15. The curiosity of the scientist is usually directed toward seeking an understanding of things or relationships which he notices have no satisfactory explanation.

16. Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know.

17. The problem is not, however, whether science should be taught, but what kind of science. It can hardly be expected that classists, modern linguists and his­torians should be required to perform experiments or to work out mathematical problems, — they are unlikely to have any inclination in this direction.

18. There seems to be at least two general courses of uction which might be adopted in order that the environ­mental doom may be averted.

19. Much of man's energy is consumed for keeping him in working order.

20. Urgent measures must be taken, if we are not to I nave a dangerous and despoiled planet to future ge­nerations.

Контрольні питання

  1. Які стійкі фразеологічні словосполучення вживаються в англ. мові в пасивному стані і як вони перекладаються?

  2. Назвіть особливості перекладу пасивного стану дієслів що мають прийменниковий додаток.

Література: [1, c. 47-58], [ 4, c. 144-156], [ 1, c. 19-20]

Тема 11 Переклад складнопідрядного речення

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу складнопідрядних речень

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Зразок аналізу складнопідрядного речення. Конкретні труднощі при перекладі складнопідрядних речень.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

1.Although I have made a fortune in the financial markets, I now fear that the untrammelled intensification of laissez-faire capitalism and the spread of market values into all areas of life is endangering our open and democratic society.

2. In peacetime Egyptians engaged their neighbours in trade, swapping surplus wheat and barley from their bountiful granary for commodities they lacked, including iron, copper, and spices; in war they fought to defend — and extend — the land and civilization I liey believed was governed and glorified by the gods.

3. The only way to rectify this is to require approval by those responsible for protecting the environment.

4. Nature has produced magnificent old growth forests through natural processes, so to think that modern forestry can do a better job seems arrogant.

5. For various reasons, including the configuration of rivers and streams, and the fact that the axes that form the quadrants meet at a point slightly southeast iif the geographical center, the two south quadrants have fewer streets than the two north quadrants of the city.

6. There is much more work to do to complete our protected areas network across the province but an essential step towards our goal has been made.

7. Our ability to believe what we want has made life easy.

8. In acupuncture, needles are inserted at an acu­puncture point, then aligned with energy pathways cal­led "meridians", which connect internal organs with points along the body's surface; the needles are rotated clockwise or anticlockwise, according to whether energy is to be stimulated or damped down.

9. Although in the 1960s flexible scopes were de­veloped by technicians in order to check engine interiors without them having to be taken apart, today's endo­scopes are not just simple tubes you can see through; they are equipped with minute television cameras.

10. Technological advance in the first half of the 20th century raised fundamental questions about whether the globe could continue to support its rapidly growing population — and about whether the techno­logy itself was appropriate.

11. What we want to see is a solution rea­ched through discussion and negotiation.

12. Strict secrecy was being observed among Ministers about their real attitude. What has been made clear beyond any shadow of doubt is their intention to avoid anything which will lead to the slightest conflict with South Africa.

13. What the company is really asking is that pro­duction workers correct their own work — that is be unpaid inspectors and check their own quality. The aim is to eliminate the jobs of many inspectors.

14. What these industrialists want is cheap and docile labour, social stability and a good return on their investment.

15. "What is increasingly evident", the Communist statement points out, "is that unless the Canadian people intervene in a massive way in the debate, the "wheelers and dealers" will win out, and what Canada will get is a constitution which perpetuates the status 11uo, divides the country, and further undermines ( Canada's independence".

16. Despite the breathtaking natural beauty of the crystalline Great Lakes during the winter, man is reluctant to venture into this snowy wonderland.

17. Adaptation is the process by which living things adjust to changes in their environment — ways of finding food, protecting themselves from their enemies, and reproducing.

18. Scientists have discovered that the faster a living thing grows and moves during its life, the shorter its life will be.

19. Since the professor had planned to present a complex demonstration, he decided to cancel the class until everybody was present.

20. When the early settlers, especially the English, arrived in the New World, the hardships and dangers awaiting them were totally unexpected.

Контрольні питання

  1. Які речення є найбільш складними для аналізу?

  2. Для чого перед перекладом речення необхідно робити його синтаксичний аналіз?

Література: [4, c. 156-168]

Тема 12 Переклад еліптичних конструкцій.

Мета : проаналізувати особливості перекладу еліптичних конструкцій

Завдання до теми

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Еліптичні конструкції, що мають експресивно-підсилювальне значення.

Підрядні допустові речення зі сполучниками whatever, however, в якихнемає присудка (іноді підмета). Еліптична конструкція if+ Participle 2 (або прикметник).

І. Перекладіть українською:

1. Whatever your opinion about that, there's no denying the benefits arising from a genetic bond that has linked cats and humans for millions of years.

2. Whatever the risk of eruption, there should be no evacuation of such a huge number of people as are living in this camp.

3. Whatever the present situation, the whole volca­nic pile is being pushed upwards by a rise of this volcano's magma.

4. Whatever the risk of any one of these possible hazards, the number of victims of volcanic activity would be smaller than the number that would be claimed by a large-scale displacement of one million refugees.

5. However enormous steps science has made in making food more fit to eat, it has, at the same time, made many foods unfit to eat.

6. Whenever thyroxin is needed by the body, the I thyroid gland excretes it directly into the bloodstream.

7. Many new medicines today eradicate diseases, however widespread they could be.

8. Before the earthquake hit the area, some minor tremors, if any, were felt.

9. A lunch of soup and sandwiches, if any, does not appeal to all students.

10. However costly the project may be, it should be i reevaluated.

11. However high the fees were, we decided to pay for the furniture on the installment plan.

12. If anything, Scott seized the opportunity to present his proposal to the director.

13. While they were away on vacation, they allowed their mail, if any, to accumulate at the post office.

14. That area of the country is laced with large rivers, if dangerous.

Контрольні питання

1. Перерахуйте особливості перекладу еліптичних конструкцій.

Література: [4, c. 168-173].

Тема 13 Препозитивні атрибутивні словосполучення.

Мета: встановити особливості перекладу препозитивних атрибутивних словосполученнь.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Двочленні словосполучення. Багаточленні словосполучення. *Специфічні моменти перекладу ступенів порівняння прикметників.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

1. The mine project also required a system of chutes for loading train wagons, a huge water storage area, a water conduits system, various support buildings and more.

2. Colombo, Sri Lanka's capital, is a boisterous and cheerful city where cool ocean breezes collide with a hot breath of exhaust fumes, woodsmoke, spices, and coconut-oil pomade.

3. Its center honks with three-wheel taxicabs and chatters with sidewalk vendors offering paper cones of juicy mango chips and coconuts with sweet water inside.

4. It is important that these plans must be intergrated with existing land use plans.

5. Brush and deciduous trees play a key role as both a food source for wildlife and a natural source of nitro­gen.

6. Land and Resourse Management Plan tables are expected to make King Solomon-like decisions by designating each landscape area as high, intermediate or low emphasis for biodiversity.

7. Other concerns that await possible assessment include approval of a road before detailed studies were completed about its effect on wildlife habitat and a forest development plan that does not conform to the terms of and conditions for a low-intensity area as defined by a regional land use plan.

8. Britain will contribute important elements to NATO's new naval and air reaction forces.

9. The growth of car use has partly been encouraged by the falling price of fuel and partly by the govern­ment's motorway building programme.

10. The next step was to produce an environment pro­gramme for the whole UN system. This programme, linked to the UN's medium-term plans, eventually became known as SWMTEP (the system-wide medium- term environment programme).

11. Although other manufacturing companies are not faring as poorly outside the United States as the automakers, they are not thrilled about their earning prospects.

With their rise banned by the Go­vernment, the men have refused to coope­rate with their employers in productivity measures to which the rise was linked.

12. The machine is an electronic computer which does the job in a fraction of the time taken by dozens of the speediest wage clerks.

13. His April Budget increases formed a very large part of the retail price index increase during that month.

14. It was decided, with only five against, that if an inspection committee again looked into the trouble there would be a resumption of work in the morning.

15. The World Peace Council has always sought to keep the door open between the opposing sides in our divided world because place in this nuclear age demands coexistence as the condition of survival.

16. The present dispute at Doncaster follows a protest walkout of 260 on the night shift against the action of four men in breaking an overtime ban in operation at the plant.

17. He introduced a Bill to implement the Govern­ment's plan to give preferential taxation treatment to life insurance companies.

18. A week of county council election opened in England and Wales yesterday.

19. Coupled with the spending and tax proposals were changes in the federal regulatory process and monetary policy.

Контрольні питання

  1. Чому переклад препозитивних атрибутивних словосполученнь може завдавати певних труднощів?

  2. Що треба зробити для правильного перекладу таких словосполучень?

Література: [4, c. 191-193].

Тема 14 Переклад емфатичних конструкцій

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу емфатичних конструкцій.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Посилювальне do. *Зворотний порядок слів та речень. Емфатичні допустові речення. *Подвійне заперечення. Емфатичне сполучення it is.. that (which,who).

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською мовою:

1. Only recently has the explosive growth in human numbers, technological power and consumption given our species the power to alter the biophysical makeup of the Earth.

2. It was in front of the Lincoln Memorial that Martin Luther King made his famous "I have a Dream" speech in which he told about the dream he had for his four children and all children.

3. It was the scene of fierce fighting and death when General W.T. Sherman led Union armies into the city, setting it afire.

4. It does finally offer options for biodiversity pro­tection that have been sorely missing in the past.

5. Should it ever become necessary to close one of the cells to clean it, the sewage treatment system will still go on functioning safely using the other cells as alternates.

6. Never before has there been such a large area of land protected over such a short time frame.

7. Whatever their cause the symptoms are the fol­lowing.

8. Satisfactory as this theory may be in many res­pects it is far from being probable.

9. Thus it is known that birds do not keep direction by orientating themselves in the earth's magnetic field, neither apparently, does memorizing the route play an essential part.

10. It is from experiments on solubility of gases in liquids that Dalton appears first to have derived direct evidence in favour of this view.

11. The value of this mass would not be affected by any systematic error common to all the observations, not even by such an error which varied uniformly with the time. Nor would small errors in the adopted ele­ments of the sun have any effect upon result.

12. It seems not at all unlikely that many of the lower animal forms also have the power to make a similar distinction.

13. The ancients had no knowledge of stellar distan ces, neither was there then any means by which they could determine them.

14. Also included in the list are several coastal marine protected areas.

15. The quick river plays against the tangle of trees ind creates riffles and eddies, and so do the pilings from old dams, bridges and stream deflectors the river has mostly reclaimed.

16. Nor was it hard to imagine the young man in Paris who had not yet begun to trade on his talent, writing nbout what he knew and loved best, trout fishing in wild country.

17. "Not only does this method reduce the trauma to the patient — it also means that we no longer have to make major incisions to perform major operations", ;ays a leading surgeon

18. Not until after the humanistic move­ment revived the study of Greek in Wes­tern Europe did Greek words begin to enter the English vocabulary in great quantity.

19. In short, it is practically impossible l.o design a machine so specialized that it will have value i nily with respect to the field of application originally intended. Nor is there any computer which is superior to any other computer with respect to every problem.

20. Incomplete though these figures are, they give more information in several respects than has before been available.

Контрольні питання

  1. Для чого в англійській мові вживається зворотний порядок слів?

  2. Для чого в англійській мові вживається подвійне заперечення?

Література: [4, c. 200-203].


1. Переклад означеного, неозначеного та нульового артикля.

2. Переклад граматичних омонімів (it, one, that, та ін.).

3. Переклад службових слів.

4. Вживання та переклад умовного способу.

5. Передача модальності при перекладі:

а) еквівалентних модальних дієслів;

б) багатофункціональні дієслова;

в) варіанти переклад модальних дієслів у сполученні з Infinitive Passive і Perfect Infinitive.

6. Передача конструкцій з формальним підметом.

7. Безособові речення та способи їх перекладу.

8. Переклад конструкцій з дієсловом to have.

9. Переклад конструкцій з дієсловом to ве.

10. Переклад інфінітиву та інфінітивних конструкцій:

а) переклад звороту «складений додаток» (Complex Object);

б) переклад звороту «складений підмет» (Complex Subject);

в) переклад самостійного інфінітивного звороту (Absolute Infinitive Construction);

г) інфінітивний зворот з прийменником «for».

11. Дієприкметник та його звороти:

а) труднощі перекладу дієприкметника 1,2;

б) вживання та переклад об’єктного дієприкметникового звороту (The Objective Participial Complex);

в) суб’єктний дієприкметниковий зворот (The Subjective Participial Complex);

г) самостійний дієприкметниковий зворот (The Absolute Participial Complex);

12. Герундій: труднощі перекладу. Герундіальні звороти ( The Gerundial Construction) та їх переклад.

13. Переклад конструкцій пасивного стану.

14. Перехідні та неперехідні дієслова, особливості їх перекладу. Найбільш уживані дієслова, з якими можливі пасивні звороти.

15. Емфатичні конструкції та їх переклад.

16. Еліптичні конструкції та їх переклад.

17. Загальна перебудова структури речення при перекладі з англійської мови на українську.

18. Переклад складнопідрядних речень.

19. Переклад препозитивних атрибутивних словосполученнь.

20. Специфічні моменти перекладу ступенів порівняння прикметників.


  1. Апполова М.А. Грамматические трудности перевода. — М.: «Межд. отношения», 1977.— 136 с.

  2. Карабан В. І. Переклад англійської наукової і технічної літератури.— Вінниця, 2001.— 425 с.

  3. Казакова Т. А. Практические основы перевода.— С, Пб., 2001.—260 с.

  4. Шпак В. К. та ін. Основи перекладу: граматичні та лексичні аспекти.—К.: Знання, 2007.—310 с.

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