Методичні вказівки щодо практичних занять з навчальної дисципліни «граматичні проблеми перекладу»

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Тема 5 Модальні дієслова

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу модальних дієслів.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Дієслово can (could). Дієслово may (might). Дієслово must. Дієслово should

*Переклад модальних дієслів, уживаних у непрямих значеннях.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

l. Air pollution can also increase the acidity of drinking water. This can result in high levels of lead, copper and aluminium in tap water, mostly coming from old pipes attacked by the acids.

2. Many of the items produced by industry arc discarded; energy consumption could be cut by more effective recycling.

3. International agreements must be implemented, and intersectoral mechanisms with acknowledged power to deal with ocean affairs established.

4. It will tell us whether we can change our attitude and behaviour to live in harmony with a natural world that supports us.

5. The growing ozone hole leads to increasing ultra­violet radiation, which in turn may be impacting phytoplankton, the basis of the marine food chain.

6. It shows that the agencies with a decision making role must exercise their own independent judgement, and cannot simply pass the buck or hide behind the lead agency.

7. Okinawans are among the longest-lived people on earth, and I wondered if their qualities of heart and human feelings, so evident among the islanders, might have something to do with their longevity.

8. Body language, it seems, could be the key to all sorts of unsolved mysteries. Experts believe that our “silent speech” – the way we move, small changes in appearance, posture and gestures – conveys far more meaning than the words in any conversation. Body language can make or break any encounter, especially if you are feeling uncomfortable.

9. If in your youth you read strories about the sea, the idea of sailing on a freighter might appeal to you. You might think that, in the prolonged intimacy of the confines of the ship, your fellow travellers will confide tones which will bring you fame and a fortune as a writer yourself.

10. Sometime in this millennium we will confront this dilemma: should we leave our planetary neighbours unaltered, or should we modify them and make them closer to the heart’s desire? Thus we might orbit giant solar mirrors to warm frozen Mars, or sunshades to cool torrid Venus.

ІІ. Перекладіть українською:

1. That is the basic fact which must be grasped by the people of Britain. It must be underlined in the House of Commons debate.

2. His curious eyes rested long upon her face and on her hair; and, as he thought of what she must have in then, in that time of her first girlish beauty, a strange unfriendly pity for her entered his soul.

3. She did not quite know how to take a remark which might have no significance or an absurdly great one. Then by his face she saw that he meant it to have the absurdly great one.

4. He had a snug bit of garden that looked pleasant, after the dusty playground, which was such a desert in miniature, that I thought no one but a camel could havr felt at home on it.

5. He might find his job too much for one man, but nevertheless he liked it. He might be a simple soldier but he had a considerable talent for survival.

6. But no one visiting a public school can fail to be struck by the continuity of these isolated communities: they roll on with their Latin jokes, their flags and private languages, still perpetuating vestigial aspects of a Victorian world.

7. The hard fact must be faced that if we want a national opera and ballet company, subsidies are necessary, and on a bigger scale than at present.

8. He had gone out his way to be friendly; which, from him, who never troubled to be friendly, or couldn’t be, had been something no one could have expected.

9.I had never been to Wisconsin, but all my life I had heard about it. And I must have seen the pictures. Everyone must have. Why then was I unprepared for the beauty of this region?

10. But I could not help observing that he seemed to think he had hit upon a wonderful expedient for expressing himself in a neat, agreeable, and pointed manner without the inconvenience of inventing a conversation.

Контрольні питання

  1. Назвіть основні особливості перекладу модальних дієслів.

  2. Назвіть основні особливості перекладу модальних дієслів, уживаних у непрямих значеннях.

Література: [4, c. 79-89].

Тема 6 Функції та способи перекладу слів to do, to be, to have

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу слів to do, to be, to have.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Особливості перекладу дієслова to do. Особливості перекладу дієслова to have. Особливості перекладу дієслова to be. *Присудок як центр речення в англійській мові. Складний присудок. Подвійний присудок.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

1. He showed that totalitarian ideologies have a common element: they claim to be in possession vof the vultimate truth.

2. Wealth does accumulate in the hands of its ow­ners, and if there is no mechanism for redistribution, the inequities can become intolerable.

3. The clash in values becomes magnified here and I tough decisions have to be made.

4. This program does intend to develop long term, regional plans through the participation of all sectors.

5. As I returned, I had to wonder if the military prosence, together with a frantic rush toward moder­nisation, has wrested something essential from the warm, easygoing people I remember – whether anything of the island I once knew and loved remained.

6. He is eventually accepted into the group, and iilowly becomes aware of their terrible secret, which is to change his own life forever.

7. In returning to the roots of Japanese theatre, a deep love of nature is to be found.

8. I’m not too familiar with British church weddings, although one big one that I did go to was an extre­mely formal occasion.

9. The Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme was to be composed of 58 nations, elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms, and to act as the UN's intergovernmental organ for environment. Among other functions, it was to promote international cooperation and provide genenil policy guidance for programmes within the UN system.

10. We need both effective national leadership and the will among ourselves to make this country work.

ІІ. Перекладіть українською:

1. This week, I went to see the new Challenge of Materials gallery at the Science Museum. I should declare an interest, in that I’m a trustee of the museum, but I do think it’s a marvellous place anyway.

2. Computerised techniques for information retri eval to reduce routine process will also have to be considered.

3. He was very jovial, very hearty and laughed n great deal, but you didn't have to be a great judge of character to know that his noisy friendliness was merely cover for a very astute man of business.

4. But this is Madonna’98, at the close of an exhaus­ted millennium, when shock comes hard, when irony i.s so overdone it can only be used ironically, when everything has come full circle and the Spice Girls can look and sound the way Madonna did 15 years ago and still be hailed as fresh and fun.

5. The language in which Latin classics were written was several centuries older than the Latin spoken in acadic Europe at the time. Decrees that this sort of Latin was to take place instead of the form of the language spoken at the time were largely responsible for converting Latin into a dead language.

6. Rich human beings are behaving exactly as they did a century ago. It was not good enough to spend money to be comfortable; money had to be wasted and the more wasteful the spending, the greater the social status conferred on the spender.

7. And he knew that the day had come again, when he must go on with his round. The last bit of darkness was being pushed out of the room. He would have to move his inert body and go on.

8. English painting takes on in the course of time the complexity and waywardness which are rather to be termed “romantic”.

9. Parents usually ignore the urges that make children behave as they do. Besides, it’s entirely wrong to lay down the law in the middle of an angry argument. With children the damage done by such words is incalculable. They take these threats seriously and brood over them.

10. Big Sur is essentially forest, wildness, mountains, ocean. You can “do” Big Sur in a couple of hours if you drive like a bat out of hell.

11. America would do well to reorient its India policy by focusing on trade, commerce and development since both countries have secular democracies and freemarket economies.

12. Osawa, the author of several books on diet and antisocial behavior, describes Japan’s children as “spoiled, tired and weak”, and warns that, if they continue to live on the kind of diet they eat now, r\they may become senile before their parents do.

Контрольні питання

  1. Назвіть особливості перекладу слів to do, to be, to have у ролі присудка.

  2. Чому саме присудок є центром речення в англійській мові?

Література: [1, c. 30-81; 4, c. 88-89]

Тема 7 Переклад інфінітиву та інфінітивних конструкці

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу інфінітиву та інфінітивних конструкцій.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Переклад інфінітиву залежно від його функцій у реченні. Інфінітивні конструкції.

а) суб’єктно-предикативний інфінітивний зворот;

б) об’єктно-предикативний зворот;

*Розщеплений інфінітив.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

1. The pollutant gases or acid rain can fall directly onto the freshwater, increasing its acidity, or they can cause dama­ging substances to be washed into the wa­ter from the surrounding land.

2. We are enjoying a truly global market economy in which goods, sevices, capital and even people move mound quite easily, but we fail to recognize the need to sustain the values and institutions of an open society.

3. If there is any lesson to be learned, it is that the collapse of a repressive regime does not automatically lead to the establishment of an open society.

4. The construction of the mine involved building a rail link to carry the extracted limestone and gravel from the mine’s processing facility to the loading platform of the railroad station.

5. It is both a textbook and a directory, showing not only what to teach but how to teach it effectively.

6. The book teaches women to reflect on problems, to lead discussions and to analyze legal documents to find their application in day-to-day life.

7. He is too shy to sing or too young to know the old songs; he borrows my tape recorder and earphones, and listens to a Verdi opera with a toothy smile.

8. We need to look further to make fundamental changes in how we choose to live.

9. To fulfill its mandate, the advisory committee will also be expected to seek input from a public interest, committee to be comprised of various stakeholder groups.

10. Britain’s overseas aid programme aims to pro­mote sustainable economic and social progress, and the alleviation of poverty.

ІІ. Перекладіть українською:

1. To be by her side again and entreat forgiveness was the only thing that had the force of a motive for him.

2. I ceased to be afraid of her as I had really been all day.

3. He refused to take money, because he couldn’t give any guarantee that the treatment would help.

4. I know you find it difficult to remember Chinese names.

5. Dinny wrote a letter to her brother and asked him to come over for her in the car.

6. “My love, – he observed, – perhaps you will allow me to remark that it is barely possible that I do feel my position at the present moment”.

7. He was always the first to enter the dining-room and the last to leave.

8. Andy had been too restless to spend month after month in the backwoods.

9. She stepped down as if to jump into the water. Occasionally, he was thrust to the surface for a gasp of air only to see that it was autumn once more or that still another year had passed.

10. “You are supposed to say something now”, – Laura said, and turned her smile on me.

ІІІ. Перекладіть українською:

1. Ozone is known to cause illnesses in humans and damage to plants.

2. A world order is supposed to emerge from states’ pursuit of their self-interest.

3. The proposal seems to reverse earlier plans to phase out our aid, and it seems to collide with gloomy news.

4. It forces the farmer to push deeper into the jungle to find good soil and then to guard his fields against elephants, wild boars, and scavengers.

5. Here the human population is expected to reach 3 million by 2021, a 70 per cent increase in 30 years.

6. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are critical to the oceanic food supply, and the phytoplankton are thought to be the main climate control centre for the planet.

7. The regularity of the numbered and lettered streets makes it easier for visitors to find their way

around the city.

8. Different plants are supposed to have different healing properties.

9. Acupuncture certainly seemed to reduce the need for pain-killers.

10. Out there, under those deep blue skies, and surrounded by people I came to know better in seven days I had known for seven years, I was forced to swallow my cynicism.

ІV. Перекладіть українською:

1. At that moment Western governments were anxiously waiting for Saudi Arabia to provide new finances for the International Monetary Fund.

2. You must let me have time to consider your proposal.

3. He had learned to keep his thoughts to himself. To do so, he had been forced to divest himself of all personality.

4. Perhaps, she had mentioned the fact already to Rebecca; but this young lady did not appear to have remembered it.

5. At this moment a striking incident made the boys pause suddenly in their walk.

6. You know how I feel for you in all this, there’s no need for me to tell you.

7. “Oh, – cried my mother, – and it’s very well for you to talk about firmness” .

8. She was not about to acknowledge, even to herself, how worried she sensed her mother to be.

9. A great soul will bw strong to live, as well as strong to think.

10. Skilled reading is usually thought to be a matter of discerning what is there, but ... it is a matter of knowing how to produce what can thereafter be said to be there.

Контрольні питання

  1. Як перекладається інфінітив залежно від його функцій у реченні?

  2. Назвіть інфінітивні конструкції. У чому полягають особливості їх перекладу?

Література: [4, c. 99-117].

Тема 8 Переклад герундія

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу герундія залежно від його функцій у реченні.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Переклад герундія залежно від його функцій у реченні. Переклад складних форм герундія.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

1. By taking the conditions of supply and demand as given and declaring govern­ment intervention the ultimate evil, laissez-faire ideology has effectively banished income or wealth redistribution.

2. Advertising, marketing, even packaging, aim at taping people's preferences, rather than, as laissez- nlre theory holds, merely responding to them.

3. They decided to field test the translation by r mizing seminars on women's rights in Russia and Ukraine.

4. Housing is free, but many workers are still stuffed into British-era “line houses”, lond buildings rude as cattle stalls.

5. Many Scythian customs have been assimilated Into Ukrainian folklore, such as taboos forbidding the extinguishing of fires on St. John’s, Christmas, and New Year’s Eve.

6. Manufacturing still plays a significant role and many high-technology industries have been developed.

7. The British Prime Minister convened a special meeting of the Security Council in order to reaffirm the UN’s central role in strengthening international order and world peace.

8. The promotion of Britain’s wider security interests is achieved by military assistance and training, deployments and exercises, and support for peacekeep­ing and monitoring operations.

9. By successfully exploiting oil and natural gas from the North Sea, Britain has become self-sufficient in energy and expects to remain so for some years.

10. The Government has acted to improve work incentives by reducing corporate and personal income tax rates, and by uncreasing share ownership among employees.

ІІ. Перекладіть українською:

1. The molecules of a polar substance because of their being reactive combine with one another.

2. So far only the quantum theory has succeeded in giving a satisfactory explanation.

3. These are the chief causes of crude rubber being used.

4. Einstein’s being awarded the Nobel prize in physics soon became widely known.

5. Adding more turns makes magnetic field stronger.

6. In order to calculate the motion of an electron, we must investigate the accompanying wave motion instead of using classical point mechanics.

7. Congratulating Campaign for Nuclear Disarmn ment for the massive demonstration against the “nuclear madness” the national organizer of the Transport and General Workers Union said, “We’re against the obscenity of money being spent on weapons while British industry is dying and 2.4 million are deprived of jobs.”

8. “There is no question therefore of the door being firmly closed against any increase of pay for firemen before July 1 next,” he declared.

9. All the evidence of past words and deeds is against Much agreement being possible.

10. Jobs and living standards depend on the industrial capacity of the nation being used to the full.

Контрольні питання

  1. Як перекладається герундій у функції обставини? додатка? підмета?

предикативного члена складеного присудка?

  1. Як перекладаються складні форми герундія?

Література: [4, c. 117-126].

Тема 9 Переклад дієприкметника та дієприкметникових конструкцій

Мета: опрацювати особливості перекладу дієприкметника та дієприкметникових конструкцій.

Короткі теоретичні відомості

Переклад Participle 1 і Participle 2 залежно від їх основних синтаксичних функцій. Переклад дієприкметникових конструкцій.

Завдання до теми

І. Перекладіть українською:

1. Helmut Newton’s world isn’t fan­tasy. It exists, locked behind the large double doors of expensive hotel suites, or shuttered behind the long windows of apartments on the Avenue Foch: a world of the rich and, yes, the perverted.

2. Profit-taking from the market and the taxes paid on those profits have pushed the federal budget toward its first surplus since 1969 and, similarly, left states in the strongest budget position since 1980.

3. Growing up in a declining North End neigh­borhood, she spent hours of her early childhood alone, coloring or playing with dolls. She was a girl who never broke a crayon. A chubby non-athlete. A self-described teachers’ pet with a funny last name.

4. Washington – on the morning of Dec. 3, 1996, linving watched the Dow surge 27 per cent that year, Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan held a private meeting that became his own genteel version of the debate show “Crossfire”.

5. Badminton became popular in Victorian times and in particular with ladies. The more sedate pace of the game made it easier to play in the long skirts worn by women, than the faster game of tennis.

6. Happily married people are healthier; even their immune systems work better than those of people who are unhappily married or divorced.

7. Opened in the teeth of the Depression as a mighty symbol of rebirth, the 102-floor Empire State Building got off to a wobbly start financially. Built by General Motors executive John Raskob, the building reigned for 42 years, as the world’s tallest.

8. Not just the boys go bad. Take the 15-year-old Tokyo girl who despite being ranked near the top of her class, tried to poison her schoolmates with fake bottles of diet drink.

ІІ. Перекладіть українською:

1. It was evident that he would make a perfect companion, and his love, once won, was of the sort that did not alter.

2. Even allowing for a moral outlook that permitted what by law is forbidden to-day, the behaviour of the royal family and the influential classes was astonishing.

3. Where I live you can always hear the wedding party coming because they make so much noise, hooting their horns and shouting.

4. He witnessed such a wave while watching a boat being drawn along the Canal by a pair of horses.

5. With her income so much reduced and so many dividends not being paid, that proposition was indeed something to take into consideration.

6. The sellers shall not be responsible for any damages resulting due to any cause beyond the sellers' control.

7. With the experiments having been carried out, we started new investigations.

8. Later the daily storm crackles in from the west, its thunder scattering the crows that roost in the plumeria trees below my hotel window, its torrents sweeping the sidewalks clean.

9. Women pick the tea, dressed in shimmering saris, wrists jangling with gold and silver, as if on their way to some fantastic celebration.

10. They went into the parlor my mother had come from, the fire in the best room on the side of the passage not being lighted.

11. Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi, in 1897, his father being a business manager of the university there.

12. Yellowstone National Park is no more representative of America than is Disneyland.

13. This being my natural attitude, I don't know what made me turn sharply south and cross a state line to take a look at Yellowstone.

14. Almost daily, the Washington Post and other newspapers have their advertising revenues increased by all-page ads in which one corporation or another is telling Congress to quit dallying and pass the program.

15. The need for pressure from the Labour movement lo get such decisions taken is urgent.

16. Now, the ladies being together under these circumstances, it was extremely natural that the discourse should turn upon the prosperity of mankind to tyran­nize over the weaker sex and the duty that devolved upon the weaker sex to resist that tyranny and assert their rights and dignity.

17. In diplomatic circles he was generally regarded us having an attractive personality and a considerable share of "personal charm".

18. These very important details were found missing from a later description of the manuscripts.

19.If I saw him at the opera, say, he being with a person of high rank, he was apt not to catch sight of me.

20. Although they could not say it, my old friends wanted me gone so that I could take my proper place in I he pattern of remembrance — and I wanted to go for the same reason.

Контрольні питання

  1. Як перекладається дієприкметник, що виконує у реченні функцію вставного елемента?

  2. Які труднощі існують при перекладі дієприкметникових конструкцій?

  3. Як перекладається дієприкметники залежно від їх основних синтаксичних функцій?

Література: [4, c. 126-144]

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