How is it diagnosed?
Your health care provider will ask about your child's medical history and symptoms and examine your child's shoulder. Many times a young athlete will complain of pain but have a normal physical exam.
An x-ray may be done of your child's shoulder. The x-ray may show a widening of the growth plate of the humerus at the shoulder joint. This x-ray is often compared to an x-ray of the uninjured opposite shoulder to look for differences in the growth plate.
How is it treated?
The most important treatment is rest. Depending on the severity of the injury, your child may need to rest the shoulder by not throwing at all for 1 to 3 months. During that time your child should have a supervised rehabilitation program with a physical therapist or an athletic trainer.
How can Little Leaguer's shoulder be prevented?
The best way to prevent Little Leaguer's shoulder is to limit the amount of throwing a child does. Since this problem occurs most often in pitchers, guidelines have been established for how many pitches or innings a child can throw in a week. In general, children 9 through 12 years old should pitch no more than 6 innings a week and no more than 250 pitches a week. Youngsters 13 through 15 years old should pitch no more than 9 innings a week and no more than 350 pitches. When they are not pitching, they need to be sure they are not throwing hard in their backyard and that they are not in another position that requires hard throwing.
Clinical features of asthma course in obese patients treated by inhaled steroids
Nurul Syuhada Mazlan, student of 6th course
Science chief — M.D., G.A. Fadieieva
Sumy State University, Department of Internal Medicine postgraduate education with propedeutics course
Study objectives: To determine asthma-control in obese patients treated by inhaled steroids.
Methods: 132 asthma patients were studied after administration of long-acting ß2-agonists and inhaled steroids in dose appropriate to asthma severity. The I group included 24 patients with a normal body mass index (BMI), the II group – 104 patients with obesity. Obesity was diagnosed according to WHO criteria (1999). Diagnosis of asthma and its severity was defined as provided by GINA (2006). Flow-volume spirometry was performed. Statistical processing of results was carried out using licensed Microsoft Office 2000.
Results: Asthma patients with obesity reported more wheeze, attacks and exacerbations per year (p<0.05). Obese participants had more significant obstructive disturbances in spirometry compared to lean asthma patients (p<0.05).
In 3 months of treatment with long-acting ß2-agonists and inhaled steroids obesity was associated with more asthma symptoms and using of short-acting ß2-agonists. The results of our study indicate improved pulmonary function. Treatment induced a significant increase in FEV1 (p<0.05) and FVC (p<0.05) that was related to asthma-control in (58,3±10,3) % of patients of group I and in (9,3±3,9) % of patients of group II.
Conclusion: Obesity has a negative impact on bronchoobsructive syndrome in patients with bronchial asthma. The results suggest that standard treatment in obese asthma patients lead to asthma-control in insignificant quantity of patients and require systemic impact like weight loss.
INFLAMMATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN. OSTEOMYELITIS IN CHILDREN
Emily Bosibory Obaigwa, student of 5th course
Supervisor - Dr. Vladimir Babych
Sumy State University, Department Of Traumatology
Definition: osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that can occur after a spread of an infection from the blood stream (hematogenous osteomyelitis), after spread of another infection (such as arthritis)
Causes: staphylococcus is the most common pathogen, followed be streptococcus pneumonia and streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, bartonella henselae, salmonella, kingella kingae, anaerobes such as bacteroides, fusibacterium, clostridium and peptostreptococcus rarely cause osteomyelitis.
Diagnosis: laboratory studies, radiography, MRI (positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning has accuracy similar to MRI), radionuclide bone scanning, CT scanning, ultrasonography, indium scanning, gallium scanning.
Treatment: medical care (optimal antibiotic selection), surgical treatment, drained in the infected area, remove diseased bone and tissue, restore blood flow to the bone.
Prevention: if you’ve been told that you have an increased risk of infection, talk to your doctor about ways to prevent infections from occurring reducing your risk of infection will also reduce your risk of developing osteomyelitis. In general, take precaution to avoid cuts and scrapes, which give germs easy access to your body. If you do get any cuts and scrapes, clean the area immediately and apply a clean bandage. Check wounds frequently for signs of infection.
CEREBRAL STROKE: RISK FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE PERIOD
Ponor O.B., 6th year student
Scientific adviser - Associate Professor О.І. Kolenko
Sumy State University, Department of neurosurgery and neurology
Illnesses of the system of blood circulation belong to most widespread among the people of our planet and occupy a leading place among nervous diseases. Exactly these illnesses remain principal reason of death rate. In Ukraine constantly a death rate grows from the vascular diseases of cerebrum and have first place in the structure of general death rate Ukraine population. These diseases strike not only old people but also young, able-bodied population, which results in the permanent disability and economic losses.
The leading factors of risk are set cerebral stroke for the inspected patients:
For both types of stroke there was a characteristic arterial hypertension (63%), («soft» and moderate forms). Hypercholesterinemia was 41%, atrium fibrillation and postinfarction cardiosclerosis - 19,4% mainly in the persons of cerebral stroke, diabetes mellitus, - 18,4%, genetic predisposition - 34%, abuse of alcohol - 19%, smoking - 13%. It is charactering polifactorials and combination of risk’s factors (two and anymore) depending of type of stroke, age and sex.
The special role of somatic complications cerebral stroke was evidence. Priority complications were heavy pneumonias (13,6%), thromboses and tromboembolism (9,1%), infecting of urinoexcretory ways (7,4%), sharp peptic ulcers (6,1%), heart attack of myocardium (3,9%), and also combination of complications. This category of patients needs permanent monitoring and correction of intensive therapy with the purpose of prophylaxis, early diagnostics, single-minded therapy complications of cerebral stroke, which accelerate a lethal end.
The population of Ukraine and our region is not enough informed about the factors of risk that possibility of prevention cerebrovascular diseases, exposure of patients, on the early stages of illness. Important part of prophylaxis is education of population of healthy way of life. A man must know how it is needed to operate in the case of worsening the state of health, about the displays of stroke.
The small being informed is reason of too late appeal for medical help which matters on the before hospitalization’s stage. The educational programs can be realized with the use of mass media. All of it needs increase of informing in a professional environment: family doctors and a district doctor, personnel of „first-aid" and other physicians, must understand - success of treatment of patients depends on their actions.
Clinical case of Pseudoaldosteronism
Wael Ahmed Mezher- student of 3th course
Scientific supervisor - Associate Professor O. Romanyuk
Sumy State University, pediatrics Department
Introduction. In the scientific medical literature there is not enough information about the problem of pseudohypoaldosteronism. There are some publications on the etiology and pathogenesis. The question of treatment of this disease remains unresolved. In this regard, has been put before us aim: analyze the literature information and describe the case of pseudohypoaldosteronism in our practice.
Results of our research. As a clinical example we show case of observation H. boy, 8 months. From anamnesis is known that the child was born from the second pregnancy , which was normal, physiological second birth. In the first night found increasing potassium to 7.1 mmol / l (control held in connection with the loss of their first child in the family against the backdrop of a stable high level of potassium). In the first months of life the child consulted at the Centre of metabolic diseases. A Tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) study in the laboratory of Molecular Genetics RAMS Moscow: pathology was not found. TMS - the method by which we can quantify the metabolic markers of 3000 violations of various groups and to characterize both classes of substances and their molecular weight, which can detect and confirm a number of metabolic disorders. During the first months of life the child's condition was little disturbed. However, poorly gain body weight. From the sixth to eighth month of life there was not any increase in his body weight. Given the stable high level of potassium (7.09-7.11-6.21) in the repeatedly control the child was hospitalized for verification of the diagnosis and determining treatment tactics. Child`s condition moderately. Spontaneous motor activity decreased. Scream quietly, not modulated . Head holds a short time, large fontanel 2 х 2.5 см, at the cranial bones, not tense. Emotions poorly expressed. No smiles, not say “ah-goo” . Lack of body weight -24%. Given of the detected high levels of aldosterone, renin, in combination with hyperkalemia , hyponatremia and moderate hypomagnesaemia and metabolic acidosis with normal levels of cortisol , 17 OPG, glomerular filtration child exhibited pseudohypoaldosteronism diagnosed type I, autosomal recessive type of inheritance, form MTOD (multiple target organ defect). Deficient anemia of mixed origin. Currently the child is receiving treatment on an outpatient conditions under the observation district neurologists, specialists in metabolic center. Requires monitoring the levels of potassium, sodium, transaminases.
Conclusions: 1. Pseudohypoaldosteronism is less common pathology of childhood. 2. Syndrome diagnosis requires a mprehensive evaluation of clinical, biochemical parameters. 3. Timely diagnosis and treatment to optimize a child's life, in some ases to avoid fatal.
RISK FACTORS OF LOW BACK PAIN AMONG SCOOLCHILDREN, WHO ARE LIVING IN ZAPOROZHYE
Ivashchenko M.I., Podlyanova O.I.
Scientific mentor – prof. V.V. Povoroznyuk*
Zaporozhye State Medical University, Chair of Children Diseases FPE,
*Institute of Gerontology AMS Ukraine, Department of Clinical Physiology and Pathology of Locomotor Apparatus, Kyiv
Introduction. Low back pain (LBP) in adolescence is also as a common problem as that for adults and most of these studies have been conducted in Europe, however, there are no data in Ukraine.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and to associate risk factors among the children living in one of the cities of Ukraine - Zaporozhye.
Material and method. 274 of schoolchildren at the of age 10-17 years old were examined. There was used the objective examination of LBP with a structured questionnaire consisting of anthropometric items, psychosocial factors and life style, the family history of LBP et al. (Povoroznyuk V.V., 2008). Body composition parameters were estimated using the Slaughter formulas (1988).
Results. 22.6 % of schoolchildren had complaints in LBP (23.6 % - boys, 76.4 % - girls). The age-related peak of LBP was in 13-15 years among girls, in 14-15 years among boys. The girls with LBP were higher than the girls of the control group up to 13 years. The average height of the boys with LBP practically in all age-groups was shorter. The average weight of girls and boys with LBP practically in all age-groups was lower, but the weight of 15-17-year-ald boys was more than of children from the control group. The boys’ with LBP body mass increased thanks to the fat component and among girls with LBP – thanks to the lean body weight. According to Tanner scale the sexual development slowing-down was mentioned among the girls with LBP, especially at the age of 13 and 16. The analysis showed that the factors were associated with LBP: there was the family history of LBP, the developing of the LBP in sitting position, all children with LBP had overweight bookbags and the high common level of alarm and the alarm connected to the school.
Conclusion. Our study shows that LBP is a frequent event in teenagers, particularly in girls, sedentary children and those with a family history of LBP. The most vulnerable in physical development are girls with LBP at the age of 12-14 and boys with LBP at the age of 13-15 and that needs the early diagnostics and prophylactics of its dysfunction. This requires preventive measures and longitudinal studies, which are very important from the standpoint of public health.
USE OF MEANS OF IMMUNOCORRECTION IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF THE CHRONIC DISEASES OF THE ORAL MUCOSA
Scientific leader - prof. A.V. Borysenko
National medical university by A.A. Bogomolets, Conservative Dentistry Department
The problem of the precancerous diseases of the oral mucosa occupies leading place among the basic stomatological diseases today. The difficulties of treating of these diseases consist in the multiplicity of the pathogenetic mechanisms of their development, which causes the need for careful individual study of the state of an organism of an independent certain patient. The disturbances of immune system occupy important place among the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of a significant quantity of diseases.
A sufficiently significant quantity of scientific works is devoted to their studying; however, these disturbances are so complex that today there is no clear and precise idea about fullness of their changes and importance for the pathologic process in the oral mucosa.
The purpose of our study was an increase in the effectiveness in the complex treatment of patients with the precancerous diseases of the oral mucosa on the basis of the use of the differentiated immunomodulating therapy in the dependence on clinico-immunological status of patient.
During the study 46 patients with the precancerous diseases of the oral mucosa at the age from 40 to 65 years were examinated. In this group obligatory precancerous diseases are diagnosed for 7 patients, facultative precancerous diseases with the larger potential malignancy - for 11 patients and facultative precancerous diseases with the smaller potential malignancy are discovered for 28 patients.
The results of studying the clinical and laboratory indices testify that the initial values of the tests of the estimation of the state of the oral mucosa are different for patients with the different precancerous diseases. Comprehensive immunological examination made it possible to reveal different disturbances from the side of the immune system among patients with the precancerous diseases. Changes in the separate indices of the immunological reactivity are determined by our examinations: quantity of the circulating immune complexes, the level of protein, caption of complement, the nature of the fluctuation of levels B and T-lymphocytes and so forth. The nature and degree of the manifestation of these changes had regular interrelation with the special features of the clinical course of the precancerous diseases of the oral mucosa. The computer program of diagnostics and determination of the degree of immunological disturbances and versions of differentiated immunomodulation for patients with the precancerous diseases is developed for systematization and data of analysis of immunogram, and also rational prescription of the immunomodulating therapy. Based on this, patients of the basic group were divided into three subgroups taking into account the degree of immune disturbances. The obtained results attest to the fact that the use of differentiated immunomodulation in the complex treatment of precancerous diseases influences the immune system of patients: the correction of disturbances in the cellular and humoral components occurs.
THE ROLE OF ORAL HYGIENE IN THE PREVENTION OF DENTAL DISEASES
Parisa Pour Khosrow, student of 3th course
Scientific advisor – candidate of medical science M.B. Medvedeva
National O.O.Bohomolets Medical University, department of conservative dentistry
Good oral hygiene helps to prevent dental problems - mainly plaque and calculus which are the main causes of gum disease and caries (tooth decay). Good oral hygiene results in a mouth that looks and smells healthy. This means: 1).our teeth are clean and free of debris; 2) gums are pink and do not hurt or bleed when we brush or floss.
Maintaining good oral hygiene is one of the most important things we can do for our teeth and gums. Healthy teeth not only enable us to look and feel good, they make it possible to eat and speak properly. Good oral health is important to our overall well-being.
Daily preventive care, including proper brushing and flossing, will help stop problems before they develop and is much less painful, expensive, and worrisome than treating conditions that have been allowed to progress.
In between regular visits to the dentist, there are simple steps that each of us can take to greatly decrease the risk of developing tooth decay, gum disease and other dental problems. These include: 1). brushing thoroughly twice a day and flossing daily; 2) eating a balanced diet and limiting snacks between meals; 3) using dental products that contain fluoride, including toothpaste;4) rinsing with a fluoride mouthrinse; 5) children under 12 drink fluoridated water or take a fluoride supplement if they live in a non-fluoridated area.
Oral health starts from pregnancy period and сontinues during all life.
«АКТУАЛЬНІ ПИТАННЯ ТЕОРЕТИЧНОЇ МЕДИЦИНИ»,
«АКТУАЛЬНІ ПИТАННЯ КЛІНІЧНОЇ МЕДИЦИНИ»,
«КЛІНІЧНІ ТА ПАТОГЕНЕТИЧНІ АСПЕКТИ МІКРОЕЛЕМЕНТОЗІВ»
(Суми, 20-22 квітня 2011 року),
«ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF FUNDAMENTAL AND CLINICAL MEDICINE
(Суми, 21-22 квітня 2011 року)
СТУДЕНТІВ, МОЛОДИХ ВЧЕНИХ, ЛІКАРІВ ТА ВИКЛАДАЧІВ
Відповідальний за випуск Л.Н. Приступа
Комп’ютерне верстання І.М. Колесник
Стиль та орфографія авторів збережені.
Формат 60×84/8. Ум. друк. арк. 13,02. Обл.-вид. арк. 16,97. Тираж 130 пр. Зам. №
Видавець і виготовлювач
Сумський державний університет,
вул. Римського-Корсакова, 2, м. Суми, 40007
Свідоцтво суб’єкта видавничої справи ДК № 3062 від 17.12.2007.