100 академік М. Марр, 80 видатний археолог Генріх Шліман, понад 60 український науковець і письменник Агатангел Кримський



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100 - академік М. Марр, 80 - видатний археолог Генріх Шліман, понад 60 - український науковець і письменник Агатангел Кримський.

Знання іноземних мов здавна вважалося за невід'ємну ознаку духовної культури. Київський князь Володимир Мономах писав у своєму «Поученні»: «Що знаєте доброго, того не забувайте, а чого не знаєте, того навчайтесь - як батько мій, перебуваючи вдома, знав п'ять мов, від того бо честь в інших країнах». Кількома іноземними мовами володіли видатний полководець і державний діяч України Богдан Хмельницький і гетьман Іван Виговський.

Чимало поліґлотів (від грецького «полі» - багато, глотта» - мова) є і в наш час. У Римському університеті працює професор Карло Тальїавіні, який досконало володіє 35 мовами, викладає 25-ма, а всього знає їх понад 120. «Батько» кібернетики Норберт Вінер вивчив 13 мов, професор Тартуського університету Пауль Арісте та викладач Московського Андрій Залізняк, родом з Чернігівщини, знають десь по 40 мов. До двох десятків знав їх український письменник-перекладач Микола Лукаш. Він автор чудових перекладів «Фауста» Ґете, «Декамерона» Боккаччо, «Дон Кіхота» Сервантеса та інших шедеврів світової літератури. Поліглоти визнають, що процес вивчення іноземних мов дуже складний, і в кожного з них свої власні методи.

UNITS OF INTERNATIONAL LEXICON AND WAYS OF RENDERING THEIR MEANING AND LINGUAL FORM

By internationalisms are meant such language units which are borrowed from one and the same source language by at least three genealogically different languages in the same or similar lingual form and identical meaning (cf. долар, атом, інтерес, директор, база, стадіон, театр, фізика, etc.). International, however, may be not only words and phrases/word-groups, but also morphemes - prefixes, suffixes and even inflexions, nothing to say about root morphemes as the English or Ukrainian words fund фонд, gas ґаз, lord лорд, ohm ом, park парк, pound фунт, smog смоґ and many others.

These morphemes are conveyed with the help of the translator's transcription (i.e. either transliterated or transcribed) sometimes, through, the combination of boh these methods may be and is employed.

Among the most often occurring international affixes in English

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and Ukrainian are the following:



  1. Prefixes: апІі-/анти-, ех-/екс-, inter-Днтер-, tгапs-/транс-, ul-
    Іга-/ультра-; as in antibody антитіло, export (v. експортувати,
    international інтернаціональний, transmission трансмісія,
    ultraviolet ультрафіолетовий.

  2. Suffixes: -ar/-ap, -er/-ep, -ізt/-ист/-іст, -ззіоп/-сія, -йоп/-ція,
    etc. as in quasar/квазар, actor/актор, volunteer/волонтер,
    humanist/гуманіст, constitution/конституція, agression/
    агресія, humorist/гуморисі, etc.

  3. Inflexions: -ит/-ум, (memorandum меморандум). -us/-yc, (ra
    dius радіус), -а/-а (formula формула), etc.

The lexicon of each developed language comprises a very large layer of foreign by origin words, word-groups/phrases and even a small number of sentences. These lexical and syntactic level units have been acquired by the borrowing languages to designate notions hitherto unknown in them. The bulk of these borrowed morphemes, lexemes and syntaxymes are found in many languages of a culturally, historically, and often geographically common area as Europe, the Middle East or the Far East. They are used to designate notions belonging to different domains of human knowledge or activity.

Hence, there is distinguished: a) the social and political terminology comprising the most commonly used political, economic, philosophical, historical, sociological units of lexicon (audit, bank, constitution, parliament, party, president, barter, sophism, etc.). Here also belong terms designating international law, diplomacy, numerous literary terms (cf. drama, poet, metaphor, epithet, hyperbole, etc.); b) natural history/sciences terminology (physics, mathematics, genetics, chemistry) used not only in special but also in scientific and popular works and in mass media (chemical/physical reaction, genes, pneumonia, etc.); c) numerous technical terms (names of machines and their parts: motor, carter, starter, accelerator, battery), as well as names of different means of transport (bus, metro, taxi) and communication (fax, telegraph, telex, radio, e-mail), etc.

These and other words and phrases of the kind are referred to as internationalisms, or more precisely genuine internationalisms. The latter never considerably change their lingual (orthographic or sounding) form nor their internationally established meaning. (Cf.: motor мотор, audit аудит, therapeutic терапевтичний).

The main characteristic feature of genuine internationalisms, whether single words or words-combinations, is their semantic singularity. It means that their lexical identity and orthographic similarity

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in the source language and in all target languages remains unchanged both at language level (when taken separate) and at speech level, i.e., when used in texts/speech.



Apart from many thousands of genuine international words and word-combinations, which retain in several languages an identical or similar lingual form and identical meaning, there exists one more group of international lexis called translation loan units of lexicon. These have also a generally common structural form (of word, word-combination) but rarely a similarity in their orthographic form or sounding. Loan internationalisms are mostly different terms designating scientific and technological notions, in the main: brake гальмо, citric add лимонна кислота', lead oxide окис свинцю; specific gravity питома вага; surplus value додана вартість; nonconducting непровідність; agreement узгодження; government керування, juxtaposition прилягання (gram.), etc.

Along with these two groups of word internationalisms there also exist many stable international phraseological/idiomatic expressions in each language's lexicon. Their fund is constituted by the so-called absolute and near equivalents having a common language of origin - Greek, Latin or modern. Absolute and near international equivalents of this subgroup retain in different languages of a geographical area the same (or nearly the same) denotative and connotative meaning, the same expressive force and picturesqueness: Heel of Achilles ахіллесова п'ята; sword of Damocles дамоклів меч; to cross/pass the Rubicon перейти Рубікон; the die is cast жереб кинуто; after us the deluge після нас хоч потоп; the fair sex прекрасна стать; tilt at windmills «воювати з вітряками» («донкіхотствувати»); the tree of knowledge дерево пізнання, etc.

The use of international idioms is restricted in all languages to belles-lettres, partly to social and political texts and to conversational speech style. These idioms are also occasionally used in didactic style and are practically not used in scientific and technical matter texts.

A separate subgroup of genuine internationalisms constitute proverbs, sayings and set expressions which are used in their foreign/original lingual form (they are predominantly of Latin, French, English, German origin). Due to centuries long usage they have become regular mots often referred to as barbarisms: sine qua non неодмінна умова; status in statu держава у державі; repetitio est mater studiorum (Lat.) повторення - мати навчання; sotto voce

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тихо (впівголоса); finita la commedia (Ital.) настав кінець, крах (справі кінець); da ist der Hund begraben! (Germ.) ось де собака закопаний! O.K., all right (Engl.) усе гаразд; c'est la vie (Fr.) таке життя.



The number of these idiomatic/stable word-combinations unlike the fund of genuine internationalisms and translation loans remains practically unchanged. That is mainly because idioms/phraseological expressions penetrate into different languages through scholastic, literary and cultural channels, as a rule. This may be conditioned by some extralingual factors, which may facilitate in some important political situations their spontaneous appearance and penetration into several languages during a short period of time. For the last half a century there have appeared few stable expressions of this kind, e.g.: «the fifth column» (1936, Spain), «Iron Curtain» (1947), «peaceful coexistence» (1950's), «cold war» (1946, USA), «permissive society» (1967, Gr. Br.) and a few others.

The structural form of international idioms in most languages is identical or similar. The occasional absence of identity in their structural form is explained by the divergences in the grammatical systems and forms of expression in the source language and in the target language (cf. the heel of Achilles/Achilles' heel ахіллесова п'ята, the Pillars of Hercules/Hercules' Pillars (Herculean Pillars) геркулесові стовпи or стовпи Геркулеса).



Identification of International Lexicon Units

As has been noted, the units of genuine international lexicon are identified on the basis of their common in different languages lexical meaning and identical or only similar lingual form. Loan internationalisms, on the other hand, are identified mainly on the basis of their common sphere of use, their lexical meaning, functional significance and party - structural form.

The identification of genuine or loan internationalisms presents no difficulty so far as the monosemantic language units are concerned. That is explained by the terminological nature of the signs, which are used to signify social, political, scientific, technological, cultural and other notions (cf. parliament, theatre, theory, poet, arithmetic, artillery, botany, phoneme, suffix, theorem, proton, volt, decimal fractions, space probe, management, motor, computer, internet, electricity, etc.). These and many other internationalisms are monosemantic words or word-combinations.which constitute a peculiar layer of lexicon in quite different languages. They are characterized by a similarity of their lexical meaning, by an identity or similarity

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in their orphographic and sounding form, by their denotative meaning and sometimes by their motivation. The meaning of these and a lot of other international words and phrases/word-groups of the kind does not change in any other contextual environment. Consequently, their nature is constantly monolithic.

The identification of the international meaning of some lexemes becomes much more difficult, however, when dealing with polysemantic language signs, which are a common feature in present-day English but less common in Ukrainian. That is because in English a lot of lexemes may often have one and the same lingual form for several notions, which is shown below in the vectorial representation of meanings pertained to the noun conductor:



Conductor

кондуктор

провідник

провід

громовідвід



диригент

керівник1

genuine internationalism international loan word international loan word international loan word pseudo-internationalism pseudo-internationalism


As can be seen, only one out of six lexemes above has a common lingual form and meaning in English and Ukrainian («кондуктор»). The same vectorial disposition of denotative meanings can be observed in several other polysemantic English words of the kind. Hence, in order to avoid mistakes in translation, one must carefully study the contextual environment of such and the like language signs. Though sometimes the corresponding vectorial meanings of polysemantic words can be identified already at word-combination level. Cf.: a fit of depression/depression fit приступ/припадок депресії: depression of trade занепад/застій у торгівлі; the structure of the sentence структура речення; a multi-storied structure багатоповерхова споруда (будова/будівля).

Naturally, not every adjunct (identifying word or word-group) forming a word-combination with a polysemantic word, can discriminate the real nature and meaning of the lexeme. Because of this care should be taken when translating such polysemantic words, which may have under the same lingual form either a genuine or a



1 An illustration of this pseudo-international meaning of the noun conductor can be seen in the following excerpt from The Economist journal (February 28, 1998): A spectacular example of Oxford Health Plans once fastest-growing HMO in America. The conductor Stephen Wiggins was forced to resign as chairman on February 24th.

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pseudo-international, e.i., common, non-international meaning, the latter being realized in a definite context only. A few more examples of such words may be useful:

dramatic

industry


{художній мистецький артистичний

театральний драматичний

хвилюючий яскравий раптовий непередбачений

індустрія

промисловість галузь промисловості старанність працьовитість





Civil

громадський цивільний

ввічливий чемний



практичний

Practical

доцільний фактичний

революція переворот

Revolution < оберт (навколо осі) сівозміна (с/г) кругообіг


Apart from the polysemantic words with several meanings, one of which is genuine international and the rest pseudo-international, i.e., non-international as in the examples above, there are also quite a few words in present-day English and Ukrainian which have an identical orthographic form but quite different lexical meaning: accu-rate точний, правильний, влучний but not акуратний: billet ордер на постій, приміщення для постою but not квиток; compositor складач (друк.) but not композитор; data дані but not дата; decade десятиріччя but not декада; decoration нагорода, прикраса but not декорація; Dutch голландський but not данський: fabulist байкар, вигадник but not фабуліст; intelligence розум, кмітливість but not інтелігенція: momentous важливий but not моментальний; matrass колба but not матрац (mattress): obligation зобов'язання but not облігація; potassium калій but not поташ; prospect перспектива but not проспект; production виробництво, випуск but not only продукція: replica точна копія but not репліка; spectre привид but not спектр, etc.

As can be ascertained, these English words quite accidentally coincide in their lingual form with some other borrowed words in Ukrainian. Thus, «replica», for example, has quite a different denotative meaning in Ukrainian than our репліка (cue, remark). So is the deno-

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tative meaning of many other words, whose number by far exceeds that on the above-given list. These and the like pseudo-international words are often referred to as «false friends of the translator» (удавані друзі перекладача).

Unlike common lexical units, whose orthographic and sounding forms never coincide in the target language and in the source language, the lingual form of genuine international lexemes in all languages is always either identical or similar. It does not mean that the structural form of genuine internationalisms is necessarily always transplanted to the target language as it is observed in simple lexemes like drama, poet, opera, suffix, lord, kimono, sari, kiwi, motor, proton (драма, поет, опера, суфікс, лорд, кімоно, сарі, etc.).

More often the same genuine international lexemes in English and Ukrainian may have a different morphological structure. In Ukrainian they usually take derivational and often also inflexional affixes which is rarely observed in present-day English. As a result, most of genuine international words in Ukrainian are structurally more complicated than in English (cf. apathy-апат/я, dietic-дієтичний, form -форма, exploit - експлуатувати, economic-економічний), etc.

Some genuine international words, however, may be structurally more complicated in English than in Ukrainian: Cf.: Greek: analysis аналіз, diagnosis діагноз, sclerosis склероз, academician академік, geographer географ, mathematician математик, philosopher філософ, geologist геолог; Latin: appendicitis апендицит, tuberculosis туберкульоз, rheumatismus ревматизм, etc.

Hence, the structural models according to which different logico-grammatical classes of internationalisms are adopted in English and in Ukrainian mostly differ. On this ground relevant for the identification, as well as for the translation of any international word, remains its root morpheme, i.e., its sense bearing seme. Taking this into account, lexemes like anti-trade, arch-enemy, inventor consisting of international affixes and having common root morphemes are to be treated as non-internationalisms, i.e., as pseudo-internationalisms. The international nature/status of a source language lexeme is considered to be fully retained, when the root morpheme or at least the sense and lingual form (part of it) can be rendered in the target language. Consequently, the compounds consisting of a genuine international and a common root morpheme as school-male, coal-gas, washing-тасш'пе. etc. are to be defined in English as partly international, i.e., mixed-type lexical units. Similarly in Ukrainian: Газосховище, радіохвилі, водно-спиртовий.

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WAYS OF CONVEYING THE LEXICAL MEANING OF GENUINE INTERNATIONALISMS

From what has been pointed out concerning the nature and componental structure of genuine internationalisms becomes clear, that a faithful rendering of their lexical meaning often requires considerable attention on the part of translators. At any rate, in the process of their translation several factors have to be taken into consideration both at language level and at speech level. These factors imply the lingual form, the lexical meaning, the structure, the source of origin and the orthographic presentation of internationalisms in both the languages. As a result, expresing of meaning of some internationalisms may not always be termed «translation» proper since it is a regular and complete transplantation of the source language units to the target language (cf. atom атом, plan план, professor професор, algebra алґебра, poetnoem, etc). Besides, translating of international lexemes may sometimes depend on the established model stereotype according to which they are generally adopted in the target language. Taking into account various peculiarities of meaning and form of international lexemes, several ways of conveying their meaning can be suggested.



1. Literal Translating of Genuine Internationalisms. It should be pointed out that the lingual form of all componental parts in genuine international words and phrases is more often completely transplanted, when they originate from languages, whose orthographic systems have been arranged on phonetical principles. Hence, the authenticity of literal translating from languages as Latin, Greek, Italian, Ukrainian, partly Russian and Spanish will be always higher than that from the English or French languages, whose orthographic systems are based on the historical and etymological principles. It does not mean, however, that a less exact literal transplantation should be regarded as less faithful or inferior. Any of them is faithful enough when it conveys the form and meaning of internationalisms. In this view literal translating of genuine internationalisms should not be regarded as a mechanical substitution of each letter of the source language lexeme for a corresponding letter of the target language. In many a case a letter may be dropped or added (substituted for another) in the target language when it is not in full conformity with its sound or spelling systems. Nevertheless, there are many letter-to-letter transliterated genuine internationalisms in English and Ukrainian. Latin: angina анґіна, dentist дентист, symposium симпозіум,

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gladiator гладіатор, microscope мікроскоп, rector ректор; Greek: poet поет, micron мікрон, electron електрон, stadium стадіон, drama драма, theatre театр; Italian: macaroni макарони, pizza піцца, concerto концерт, duet дует, solo соло; Spanish: armada армада, tango танґ'о, El Dorado ельдорадо, embargo ембарго, etc.

It would be wrong to assume that genuine internationalisms from other than the above-mentioned languages can not be fully or almost fully transliterated. Literal translating can faithfully convey the lexical meaning of many English, French, German and also other than European by origin lexemes: English: bulldog бульдог1, club клуб, mister містер, shelf шельф, shilling шилінґ, shrapnel шрапнель; French: chef шеф, festival фестиваль, chiffon шифон, franc франк; Germ.: Diktat диктат, Deutsche Mark дойч марк; Portugese: cobra кобра, flamingo фламінго; Czech: robot робот; Hindi: brahmin брамін, khaki хакі, sari сарі; Japanese: kimono кімоно, tsunami цунамі; Arabic: algebra алгебра, atlas атлас, harem гарем; African: banana банан, baobab баобаб, zebra зебра; Australian aboriginal: dingo дінго, kiwi ківі, etc.

Literal translation of some of these and other genuine internationalisms may not be fully trusted, perhaps, as it has been performed not directly from the original languages but through English, which is an intermediary language here. The existence of literal forms of genuine internationalisms from these languages, however, is beyond any doubt like those from Ukrainian (cf. steppe, Cos-sack/Kozak, hryvnia); or Russian (balalaika, samovar, vodka, etc.). Nevertheless, in many genuine internationalisms there is no absolute literal/orthographic coincidence in the source language and in the target language: basin басейн, monsoon мусон, waltz вальс, wine вино, salt сіль, степ steppe, devil диявол, muscle мускул, etc.

These divergences in the literal rendering are to be explained either by the influence of the intermediary languages or by the peculiarity of the target language admitting or not admitting the source language orthographic representation (cf. brahmin брамін, class клас, diet дієта, molecule молекула, etc.) or foreign signs by the target language.



2. Translating via Transcribing/Conveying the Sounding Structure

Many genuine internationalisms are also faithfully rendered into the target language in their sounding form. This kind of translating provides the rendition of the lexical meaning of a lot of internationalisms originating from English, French and some other languages, which have

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their orthographic systems based on other than phonetical principles. Cf.: English: boom бум, box бокс, yeans джинси, knock-out нокаут, leader лідер, га/с/рейд, round раунд, frac/стрек; French: boulevard бульвар, bouquet букет, bourgeoisie буржуазія, bureau бюро, drape драп, prize приз, pince-nez пенсне, etc.



The English and French international lexemes above belong to the lexico-grammatical class of nouns. But the number of genuine internationalisms, whose lexical meaning is faithfully conveyed in their unchanged original lingual form is small. More units of the layer of lexicon in English and Ukrainian do not fully coincide in their orthographic, sounding and morphological (structural) form. This is to be explained by the differences in the phonetic and morphological systems of the two languages and also by the possible influence of a third language as an intermediary between the source/target language and the language from which the international lexeme originates. To render faithfully the denotative meaning and the lingual form of these genuine internationalisms other ways of translating are to be employed.

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